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Full text of "Report of Research and Development Activities"

AMERICAN PRINTING HOUSE 
FOR THE BUND, INC. 






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1839 Frankfort Avenue P.O. Box 6085 Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 502-895-2405 800-223-1839 Fax: 502-895-1509 



Mission 

The American Printing House for the Blind 
promotes independence of blind persons by 

providing special media, tools, and 
materials needed for education and life. 



Table of Contents 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Early Childhood 3 

On the Way to Literacy II 5 

Infant Skills Project 8 

Parent Early Childhood Education Series 10 

Preschool Activity Calendar 12 

Early Childhood References and Resources and 

Low Vision References and Resources 14 

Videotape: "Elizabeth's Story: Discovering the 

Magic of Reading" 15 

Multihandicapped 17 

Making Picture Recipes 19 

Multihandicapped Adolescent Project 21 

Pragmatic Classroom Units for Young Multihandicapped 

Children 22 

Low Vision 25 

Assessment Program and Intervention Guidelines for 

Visually Impaired Children 27 

Potential Assessment of Visual Efficiency 29 

Light Tablet 31 

Braille 33 

Braille Language Program 35 

Braillewriting Program 37 

Braille Literacy: Training, Mentoring, and 

Technological Services fo Blind Adults 39 

Educational Measures 43 

Career Interest Inventory 45 

Instruments Being Considered for Transition 46 

KeyMath Revised: A Diagnostic Inventory of 

Essential Mathematics 49 

Riverside Publishing Company — Contract Tests 50 

Stanford Achievement Series (9) , Abbreviated Edition. . 51 
Videotape: Introduction to Psychoeducational Assessment 

of Visually Impaired Persons 52 

Wide Range Achievement Test - Revised 53 



Page 

Microcomputer Applications 55 

Monitoring Technological Developments and Educational 

Applications 57 

Products 63 

Authoring Program 65 

High Interest Low Vocabulary Age Appropriate 

Software 66 

Large Print Program 69 

Math Drill and Practice Program 70 

Micrcomputer Access Technology Project 

for Persons with Visual Impairments 72 

Speaqualizer 73 

Speech Interface for Quest 74 

Speech Synthesizer Interface Library 75 

Talking Educational Game 76 

Talking Literacy Kit for Apple II Computers 

(TALK II) 77 

Textalker-gs 80 

TEXT2000 81 

Typing Program for IBM 84 

Other Activities 87 

Elementary Math 89 

Guidelines for Design of Tactile Graphics 91 

Museum Math Project 93 

Nomad Graphic Packages 94 

Tactile Graphics Starter Kit 95 

Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning Media 97 

Transition — ages 16-21 99 

Technical Research Division 101 

Technical Research Division 103 

Agencies Participating in Research Ill 

Consultants 113 

APH's Department of Educational and Technical Research Staff 125 

Publications 127 

Presentations and Workshops 129 

New Products 133 



Beginning this year, the American Printing House for the 
Blind (APH) changed the start of its fiscal year from July to 
October. With this change, the project activities described in 
this report correspond more closely to the Department's annual 
project planning cycle. These activities reflect the work 
completed during APH's 1994 fiscal year, just ended; and work 
planned for the 1995 fiscal year. 

During 1994, the Department of Educational and Technical 
Research completed work on several key projects and initiated 
several important new ones, while continuing its ongoing work on 
a number of longer-term programs. Among the Educational Research 
Division projects that were completed and are now either 
available or at the production stage are the Braillewriting 
Program (formerly the Adult Braillewriting program) , Level B of 
the Braille Language Program, On the Way to Literacy II, the 
Talking Literacy Kit for Apple II Computers (TALK II) , the Typing 
Program for IBM Computers, Developing Guidelines for Design of 
Tactile Graphics, and Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning 
Media. A number of projects were also completed by the Technical 
Research Division, including LetterTALK+, the development of 
Nomad Graphics, On the Way to Literacy, PC Typer, Prefixes, 
Recognizing Landforms, and the development of an improved 
Variable Intensity Study Lamp. 

Several new projects were initiated in 1994 by the 
Educational Research Division. These include the development of 
a portable Light Tablet, the adaptation of several new 
educational measures, incorporating a speech interface into 
authoring software, and the development of a Tactile Graphics 
Starter Kit, which has already been completed. In addition two 
important new videotapes were planned and produced in 1994 and 
will be released in 1995: An instructional video dealing with 
practices for testing students who are blind or visually 
impaired, and a video to assist persons who are developing their 
skills in reading to children with visual impairments. In the 
Technical Research Division, some of the new products that were 
initiated include the Big Cell, Big Picture, Braille 'n Speak 
Classic, Jot-A-Dot, Nomad Gold, Peg Slate, Talking Signs, as well 
as readying On the Way to Literacy, On the Way to Literacy II, 
and the Tactile Graphics Starter Kit for production. 



Research staff in the Educational Research Division have 
continued their important work in cooperative efforts with The 
Braille Research Center under the direction of Dr. Hilda Caton, 
who also serves on APH's research staff. In the past year, the 
Center has conducted work on several important projects related 
to Braille and Braille literacy, including its work with the 
Braille Authority of North America and the International Council 
on English Braille in the development of a Unified Braille Code 
for all English speaking countries. The Center has also 
aggressively pursued its funding efforts through grant 
applications and contract work. 

The activities of the Educational and Technical Research 
department during the past year have significantly contributed to 
its twin goals of conducting applied educational research, and 
designing, developing, and improving products that have 
significant value to blind or visually-impaired persons and 
producing them in efficient and cost-effective ways. The new and 
ongoing activities that are planned for the 1995 fiscal year will 
continue to strongly support these objectives. 

The activities of the Educational and Technical Research 
Department necessarily involve numerous personnel in many 
departments and divisions within APH. The shared vision and 
cooperative efforts of all these, as well as the leadership and 
support of senior management, continues to be essential to the 
Department's efforts and the benefits derived from it. 



Early Childhood 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/reportofresearc199394depa 



On the Way to Literacy II (previously Supplement to On the Way to 
Literacy: Early Experiences for Young Visually Impaired 
Children) (completed) 

Purpose: To provide additional tactile/visual storybooks 
for young visually impaired preschoolers using 
formats developed in the previous project, On the 
Wav to Literacy 

Project staff: Suzette Wright, Project Director 

Tom Poppe, Model and Pattern Maker 

Background . During the evaluation of the On the Wav to 
Literacy materials, evaluators requested that additional 
tactile/ visual storybooks be developed, particularly storybooks 
featuring real objects and thermoformed replicas of real objects. 
Students were assessed as being most interested in the real 
object and thermoformed storybooks, although each book was 
mentioned by one or more students as his/her favorite. The range 
of types of tactile graphics used in the storybooks was approved. 

In March 1991, the desire for additional read-aloud books 
featuring braille and print and tactile/visual illustrations was 
repeated by members of the Braille Needs Assessment Committee. 
More storybooks featuring thermoforms of real objects and books 
corresponding to those used by young sighted children were 
requested by the group, who prioritized this as the first need 
under the area of materials to be developed. Overall, materials 
development was prioritized as the third of four areas of need, 
following assessment and organizational skills. 

To address the need for additional tactile/visual storybooks 
for young visually impaired children, a second project of more 
limited scope was initiated in June of 1991. 

An examination of storybooks published for young sighted 
children was begun in July of 1991 and continued through 
September. Recently published children's stories were reviewed; 
library collections of children's classics and books recommended 
in book lists were examined in an effort to find stories which 
would lend themselves to tactile illustration. In addition, work 
on several original storybooks was begun by project staff. Only 
a limited number of tactile/visual storybooks were being 
developed, therefore an effort was made to select stories of high 
quality with lasting appeal. 

Altogether 11 stories (10 published, 1 original) were 
selected; project staff sketched or specified in writing the 
tactile illustrations proposed for each book. Photocopies of the 
illustrated text for the storybooks were mailed to three 
consultants for assistance in selecting the best to be developed 
into prototypes and evaluated with children. 



Five storybooks were chosen for further development and work 
began with the research staff model maker. 

A questionnaire concerning the storybooks and a child data 
sheet collecting information about students' apparent interest in 
the books were developed. Questionnaires and storybooks were 
mailed to five sites for evaluation during April and May of 1992. 
Nine teachers and six parents used the storybooks with 
approximately 37 students during this period. Questionnaires 
were returned June 15th and results began to be compiled for 
analysis. 

An expert review of the storybooks was performed in July by 
consultant Josephine Stratton. Following analysis of the field 
evaluation and expert review, three of the five storybooks were 
chosen to be recommended for production. Geraldine ' s Blanket was 
rated interesting and appropriate for the target audience by 90% 
of the reviewers (nine teacher-evaluators and one expert 
reviewer) . Graphics were also rated as interesting and 
appropriate by all reviewers who answered. That's Not Mv Bear 
was rated interesting and appropriate for the target audience by 
100% of the reviewers. Graphics were also rated as interesting 
and appropriate by 100% of the reviewers. The Blue Balloon was 
rated interesting and appropriate for the target audience by 80% 
of the reviewers (one reviewer — 10% — did not answer "yes" or "no" 
but commented it was best for kindergarten level and up; one 
dissented because she thought the story would encourage children 
to pick up old balloons) . Graphics were rated as interesting and 
appropriate by 70% of the reviewers (10% said they did not feel 
enough like a real balloon; 20% did not answer "yes" or "no" but 
suggested the graphics should feel more like a real balloon) . 
The graphics have been redesigned to use a material which more 
closely resembles the texture of a balloon. Indicated revisions 
were made to the storybook prototypes. 

Copyright permissions for Geraldine 's Blanket and The Blue 
Balloon was sought and obtained. ( That's Not My Bear was created 
by project staff for the project.) The storybooks were approved 
for production in October of 1992. A production document 
detailing each storybook's specifications was prepared and 
presented later, in January of 1993, when production of the first 
set of 10 storybooks was completed. 

Since that time, project staff have continued to work 
closely with Technical Research staff and members of the 
production department to produce final braille plates, camera- 
ready print, and to determine the most economical methods of 
mass-producing the tactile/visual illustrations. A number of 



options for producing covers and cover labels have been examined 
to reduce the cost of these books, as well as the preceding set 
of storybooks . 

Work during FY 1994 . Project staff continued to work with 
production personnel and Technical Research staff to resolve 
difficulties encountered in producing the first set of 
storybooks; resolution of these eased further runs of the first 
set of books and of the three new storybooks which comprise On 
the Way to Literacy II. A new cover design eliminates the need 
for cover labels and provides a binder which offers better 
protection of the braille pages. Various paper stocks have been 
tried to eliminate instances of paper cracking on a few of the 
raised line illustrations in two books. Laminating the backs of 
pages in these books proved most effective in preventing tearing 
of cracks and also improved durability of the braille in 
thermoformed books, where some juxtaposed illustrations 
compressed braille. 

Dies and other tooling for the new books are completed. 
Materials (polyblend, fabrics, and film for "balloons") have been 
determined and ordered. All outside contractors have been 
provided with instructions needed to complete assigned work. All 
text pages have been printed and brailled. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Project staff will assist 
production staff as needed during the final stages of production. 
Once completed work from subcontractors is received, the books 
will be ready for binding. They can then be priced and placed in 
stock. 



8 

Infant Skills Project (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop a collection of tangible child-use 
materials targeted for infants and toddlers, 
birth-24 months, and to develop accompanying 
written material useful to parents and teachers in 
developing critical skills in young children 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background. The most recent Early Childhood Materials Needs 
Assessment meeting developed recommendations for specific early 
childhood educational materials research and development 
projects. The committee delineated and set priorities in several 
areas, with the Infant Skills project receiving a high priority 
rating. This high priority correlates with the emphasis at the 
federal level to initiate and strengthen infant/toddler programs 
throughout the United States under PL 99-457 and extended under 
PL 101-476. 

Work during FY 1994 . This project has two distinct 
components: A tangible materials component and another major 
component, the written materials developed as part of the Parent 
Early Childhood Series. The second resource/ support guide, the 
Parent Early Childhood Education Series developed by the early 
childhood staff of the Overbrook School for the Blind, is part of 
the final version of the Infant Skills materials. This series, 
described more comprehensively in a separate project report 
entitled "Parent Early Childhood Education Series," was evaluated 
extensively by a number of experts in the area of early childhood 
vision. This component has been completed. 

Based on analysis of the field evaluation data, revisions to 
the tangible materials as well as to the accompanying activities, 
were designed. Staff initiated and implemented the revisions, 
along with consultation of an educational diagnostician, an 
occupational therapist, a physical therapist, and a speech 
therapist to reflect the results of the field evaluation. 

Integrating revisions, as determined by the field evaluation 
data, continued. This process has been slower than expected, due 
to the demanding schedules of the professionals doing the 
revisions. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Following completion of the 
revisions, the Infant Skills materials will be reviewed by 
content /expert reviewers. Selected components of the revised 
materials may also be evaluated by several teachers, as needed. 
The written materials will be formally edited. Following final 
testing and expert review, any additional revisions will be made 
and all materials will be readied for introduction into the 



9 



production pipeline. Production documents will be prepared and 
project staff will meet on a regular basis with production 
personnel. Staff will assist production personnel as needed. 
Project personnel will submit any tangible materials to an 
independent testing laboratory for safety evaluation. Any 
revisions necessitated this evaluation will be made to the 
tangible materials. 



10 

Parent Early Childhood Education Series (completed) 

Purpose: To evaluate and revise a set of written materials 
useful in developing critical skills in young 
visually impaired children, targeted for parents 
and teachers 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Bernadette Kappen, Project Author and 

Codirector 
Suzette Wright, Research Assistant 

Background . There is a documented need for specific 
training materials for parents and teachers of young blind and 
visually impaired children. Too often, parents are overwhelmed 
by a long booklet or book covering an array of topics. 
Experienced teachers of infant and preschool blind children at 
Overbrook School for the Blind in Philadelphia developed the 
Parent Early Childhood Education series to provide concrete and 
discrete information in a variety of topical areas. The topical 
areas selected include those proven to be important to parents 
and experienced teachers working with young children with visual 
disabilities. 

Work during FY 1994 . Final revisions to the Parent Early 
Childhood Series materials have been made via desktop publishing 
and have been coordinated jointly by project directors at APH and 
Overbrook School for the Blind. Major components and topics of 
the program include: 

General suggestions for infants with visual impairments 
General suggestions for the multiply impaired young child 
Terminology — words relating to vision impairment 
Developing eating skills, including general suggestions, 

spoonfeeding, cup drinking 
Promoting orientation and mobility skills 
Tactile stimulation activities 
Sensory development activities 
Developing vision skills 
Selecting equipment and toys 
Developing refined motor skills 
Positioning and movement 
Cognitive development 

Siblings and suggestions for family life 
Developing listening skills 
Parent-child interactions 
Developing language and communication 
Developing social skills 
Early parent-child interaction 
Socialization 
Stereotypic mannerisms — prevention and extinction 



11 

Each component includes 1-3 pages of concise information on that 
specific topical area. Following final revisions and a final 
editing, a production document was developed to prepare for 
initiation into the production pipeline. Due to interest on the 
part of consumers, it was decided that the Parent Early Childhood 
Series materials should also be available in two additional 
formats: Spanish and Braille. APH collaborated with both the 
Foundation of the Junior Blind in Los Angeles and the Hilton 
Perkins Material Program at Perkins School for the Blind to 
prepare the Spanish translation copy. 

During FY 1994, work continued to finalize the Parent Early 
Childhood Education Series. Project staff worked closely with 
Overbrook School for the Blind staff to determine final revisions 
and final format. Decisions were made jointly regarding artwork, 
translation in braille, packaging options, etc. The project was 
delayed, briefly, while project staff worked with the American 
Foundation for the Blind to ensure proper crediting of material 
paraphrased or quoted from Reach Out and Teach . 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Project staff will continue to 
coordinate all future project activities, revisions, and 
decisions with the Overbrook staff. Project staff will continue 
to monitor all phases of the future production process of the 
materials with the APH Production Department. The Parent Early 
Childhood Series will be included as a component of the Infant 
Skills materials as well as offered for separate sale. Overbrook 
plans to continue to develop additional sections and occasionally 
upgrade the materials in the Parent Early Childhood Education 
Series. 



12 

Preschool Activity Calendar (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop a 12 -month calendar of activities for 
children of developmental age 3 to 5 who are 
blind, visually impaired, and/or multihandicapped 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Nancy Smith, Project Author 
Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background . In 1992, a calendar authored by Nancy Smith, a 
preschool teacher/ consultant at the Wisconsin School for the 
Visually Handicapped and Educational Services for the Visually 
Impaired, was brought to the attention of APH by one of its 
trustees, Andrew Papineau, State Consultant for the Wisconsin 
Department of Public Instruction. It had been published several 
years earlier by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction 
for limited circulation under the name Ca 1 endar : Everyday 
Exposure to Experiences for Enjoyment . It will no longer be 
available/published by the State of Wisconsin. The need for easy 
to use ideas for activities that stimulate children with visual 
impairments is constant; project staff perceived value in a 
calendar of this nature, with over 350 activity choices for 
families of a young child who is blind, visually impaired, and/or 
multihandicapped. The activities encourage the child to explore 
the home and community environment by giving inexpensive, 
practical, concrete activity suggestions. This assists parents 
by reminding them that, with limited vision, their child needs 
more assistance in learning about the world around him/her. It 
may prompt parents to be more aggressive in exposing their child 
to household activities and chores and in being more directly 
involved in their child's intervention strategies. This, it is 
hoped, will give parents a sense of direction and purpose for 
their child's future competency development. The calendar also 
includes a narrative text above each month's date grid, with 
motivational instructional material for parents' use in working 
with their child. The objectives of the activities include: 
promoting social interaction between the child and his/her 
parents and siblings, offering multisensory experiences to the 
child through interaction with his/her environment, and fostering 
within parents a sense of purpose and hope for the child's growth 
and development. 

Work during FY 1994 . During FY 1994, the calendar, in its 
present form, as published by Wisconsin, was distributed to 20 
early childhood special educators and to 20 parents for field 
testing and review. Testing was done with the age range of 
infants through 5 years and with children across the spectrum of 
vision and other disabling conditions. Data resulting from the 
field evaluation were assembled and posted. Subjective response 
to the calendar has been enthusiastic, with many educators and 
parents commenting on the wealth of ideas presented within it. 



13 

Many educators also found value in the descriptive text that 
accompanies each month. It was felt that the narrative offers 
parents a helpful perspective on their child's disability and how 
they can be a positive force in the child's life. A number of 
suggestions for change were given, many having to do with making 
the calendar more age and disability specific. Data were checked 
and analyzed, the results of which will determine future project 
directions, including revisions. 

During the summer of 1994, the project director met with the 
project author to consider all data generated by the field 
evaluators. All suggestions for modifications and revisions were 
discussed and given careful consideration. Joint, collaborative 
decisions were made about revisions to the Preschool Activity 
Calendar. Discussion also centered around the most appropriate 
ages of children to target when marketing the calendar. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The project author will work on 
making revisions/additions/deletions to the calendar, in 
collaboration with project staff. In addition, an introductory 
section will be written that will give a rationale for use of the 
calendar activities. The target population for using the 
calendar will also be addressed within the introductory 
component . 



14 

Early Childhood References and Resources and Low Vision 
References and Resources (continuing) 

Purpose: To research recent literature relevant to young 
blind and visually impaired children and to 
develop a resource list of such references; to 
research recent literature relevant to working 
with low vision individuals and to develop a 
resource list of such references 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background . A selected bibliography of recent early 
childhood vision literature was first prepared for the Printing 
House's 1987 Annual Meeting of Ex Officio Trustees. At the same 
time, several other early childhood special education resource 
listings were also compiled and distributed. In addition, a 
second selected bibliography was developed and distributed for 
the APH Annual Meeting in the fall of 1988. This bibliography 
contained references and resources related to the development of 
visual efficiency in children with visual impairment. These 
reference and resource materials have continued to generate 
considerable interest and requests from vision professionals in 
the field. 

Work during FY 1994 . An updated listing of references and 
resources is made available for APH consumers periodically, as 
staff time permits. Two separate references and resources lists 
are compiled: One related to early childhood and one related to 
low vision. The references and resources lists constructed for 
FY 1994 continued to be made available at no charge to those 
requesting the lists via mail or phone as a service from the 
Printing House through the present time. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Project staff will continue 
updating both reference/ resource lists on an ongoing basis, 
provided that they continue to be requested. 



15 

Videotape; "Elizabeth's Story; Discovering the Magic of 
Reading" (new) 

Purpose: To create a video demonstrating how to enjoy 

reading aloud with a young child with a visual 
impairment 

Project staff: Suzette Wright, Project Director 

Background . The handbook, On the Way to Literacy: Early 
Experiences for Visually Impaired Children , contains much 
information about how to read aloud with infants, toddlers, and 
preschool children with a visual impairment. While providing 
information about strategies and appropriate materials, the 
handbook seeks to emphasize the importance of the quality of the 
read aloud experience and the child's enjoyment in establishing 
his or her desire to read. Video, as a medium, lends itself to 
demonstrating the quality of such interactions in a way difficult 
to achieve in written form. Now an accessible medium for most 
parents, videotapes also provide a way to communicate a great 
deal of information in a relatively brief time span. 

Work during FY 1994 . In March, the Project Director 
determined the video's objectives, an overall strategy for 
presenting the information as one child's story, developed an 
opening segment for the video, and wrote detailed background 
information for each age group which would be featured. This 
material was given to the Beam Group, which was contracted to 
work with project staff in producing the video. Meetings with 
the Beam Group in late May and June resulted in an outline for 
the video and ideas for special visuals and sets. The Project 
Director wrote the audio portion of the script, returning this to 
the Beam Group for indication of the visuals to accompany the 
narrated script. The script was given to reviewers in early 
August, the Project Director made indicated revisions. The 
Project Director assembled all books and special materials to be 
featured in the videotape and located and made arrangements for 
children appearing in the videotape. Filming with a Lexington- 
based film crew was completed in mid-August. 

A rough cut of the video was assembled and reviewed before 
final editing of the video was undertaken. Release for music 
identified for the video was obtained, credits prepared, and 
final editing completed. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . A brochure to accompany the 
videotape will be written and designed providing an introduction 
to the videotape, addresses for additional resources, and lists 
of recommended books for different age groups. 



16 



17 



Multihandicapped 



18 



19 

Making Picture Recipes (continuing) 

Purpose: To evaluate a manual demonstrating how to make and 
implement a picture recipe system with nonreading 
multihandicapped low vision students 

Project staff: Suzette Wright, Project Director 

Mary Zatta, Project Author 
Diane Furino-Bleier, Project Author 

Background . The purpose of the Picture Recipe program is to 
provide a means of developing functional living skills and 
cooking independence for low language students who are non or 
beginning readers. This curriculum originated from needs within 
The Perkins School for the Blind. Teachers found that as 
students became adolescents, daily living skills instruction and 
preparation for future placements into community living warranted 
the presentation of cooking instruction. There was no formal 
curriculum available to address the needs of adolescent visually 
impaired students who were non or beginning readers. It was this 
situation which prompted the development of this picture recipe 
cooking program by two teachers working with deaf-blind/multi- 
handicapped students at Perkins School for the Blind. 

The program includes a manual with easy, how-to directions; 
sample recipes formatted in two different ways; corresponding 
checklists for assessment; and helpful hints for adaptations. 
Also included is a master set of reproducible picture cards with 
which to make recipes. The master set of picture cards is 
organized in the following categories: food items, utensils, 
processes, appliances, miscellaneous. Previous project staff 
(Sheri Moore, Tobey Burton) reviewed the program and worked with 
the authors in refining the materials and preparing them for 
review. The manual, several sample recipes, and a limited number 
of drawings for the proposed "master cards" were duplicated for 
evaluation. An expert review by professionals was conducted. 
The data were analyzed and were used to make revisions and 
modifications to the picture recipe materials. Based on the 
data, a number of additional picture cards were identified. All 
drawings, it was suggested, should be more boldly drawn. 

In the fall of 1993 work began again on the project 
following a change in project staff. Project files and the 
expert review of the materials were examined. In December an 
artist was contacted and agreed to begin drawing the items to be 
pictured in the kit's "master cards." Project staff reviewed the 
list of items to be depicted and provided written suggestions of 
how these were to be drawn. Adequate progress in completing the 
drawings was not made, however; a second artist was located to 
provide the necessary drawings. These were finished in late May, 
resulting in approximately 200 illustrations. Project staff 
reduced/ enlarged drawings to fit 3 1/2 x 4 inch cards to serve as 



20 

the kit's master cards; some drawings were modified and a 
collection of unlabeled packaged items was created by project 
staff. All drawings have been submitted to the project authors 
for approval. Revisions are to the manual were undertaken. 

Work during FY 1994 . Portions of the manual were rewritten 
to more clearly convey how the illustrated master cards were to 
be used in creating recipes; changes were approved by the project 
author. Using the new master cards, new illustrations for the 
manual and sample picture recipes were created. In preparing the 
sample recipes, the project director found the creation of recipe 
steps difficult — requiring time in duplicating, cutting, and 
taping several pictures to depict a simple recipe step. As a 
result, new cards were added to the set of master cards showing 
more complicated steps to save the user time in assembling these. 
In addition all of the cards were reviewed and the size of many 
illustrations was reduced slightly so that steps combining 
several pictures could now easily fit within the "frames" of the 
picture recipe, and also so items likely to be shown together 
were proportionate in size to one another. A new list of master 
cards was drawn up, organizing the cards into subgroups to make 
location and replacement of cards in the file easier. Work began 
creating a questionnaire for field evaluation of the material. A 
search for evaluation sites was begun. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The program will be field 
evaluated in schools in the fall. Results will be analyzed. 
Because time is required to create the picture recipes, the 
project author has agreed to send additional recipes which can be 
used to create additional sample picture recipes for inclusion in 
the manual if reviewers indicate this is a need. This would 
provide the user with a larger file of completed recipes to use 
in starting a program. The project director will use the master 
cards to create these additional recipes and produce the artwork 
necessary for the manual. The materials will receive final 
revisions, then be presented for production approval. 



21 

Multihandi capped Adolescent Project (continuing) 

Purposes: To develop a manual of functional and community- 
based learning activities designed to meet the 
needs of adolescent multihandicapped visually 
impaired students and to develop and evaluate 
several tangible materials useful in fostering 
independent functioning in adolescent 
multihandicapped students 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Martha Majors, Project Codirector 
Mary Zatta, Project Codirector 
Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background . The Multihandicapped Adolescent Project is 
targeted for students who have achieved basic skill levels and 
are involved in an educational program emphasizing self -care, 
domestic skills, independence, and life/community living skills. 
Written activities include functional and age-appropriate 
applications, stressing skills useful in a community-based 
setting. Applications of functional academics are also 
incorporated into project activities. The manual is also 
applicable to adolescent students with dual sensory impairments. 

Work during FY 1994 . The Multihandicapped Adolescent 
Project manual was field evaluated by teachers in 10 programs 
nationally, working with students with multiple disabilities. 
Evaluating teachers completed field test documents that addressed 
such issues as the value and usefulness of the materials, the 
presentation and format of the information presented, the target 
populations for which the materials are most useful, and so on. 

Data from the evaluation was posted and analyzed. Revisions 
are being determined in cooperation with the project codirectors 
with whom a meeting was held this summer to discuss evaluation 
results and recommended revisions/expansions to the project. 

Work planned for Fy 1995 . It appears from field-test data, 
that significant "fine-tuning" of the manuscript will be required 
prior to publication. Therefore, work will continue with project 
staff to improve the clarity and consistency of the text. Once 
revisions are complete, a final expert review of the materials 
will be performed. 



22 

Pragmatic Classroom Units for Young Multihandicapped Children 

(continuing) 

Purpose: To evaluate a curriculum model, presented in a 
classroom units /thematic units format, that 
assists teachers of young multihandicapped 
visually impaired children in developing a 
methodology and practical approach to teaching, 
with a particular emphasis on the development of 
communication 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Wendy Drezek, Project Author and Codirector 
Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background . The Pragmatic Classroom Units were developed by 
Wendy Drezek on a similar format to a curriculum model based on 
the work of Ellyn Lucas-Arwood. Pragmatism is a methodology for 
facilitating communication for children with language disorders. 
In this model, language has a social and cognitive base, and is 
shaped by consequences in the environment; language is only 
successful insofar as it results in the intended change in the 
environment. In the classroom, routines are used to structure a 
common meaning, units are used to introduce new concepts and 
vocabulary, and "boobytrapping" is used to force the need to 
communicate. Sign language and other nonvocal techniques are 
also used with nonvocal and echolalic students. Many of the 
goals of a pragmatic language approach would be helpful to young 
students who have multiple disabilities as well as visual 
impairments . 

The Pragmatic Classroom Units represent and reflect a great 
deal of practical information developed by Wendy Drezek over many 
years of classroom experience. The purpose of the materials is 
to facilitate communication strategies for young children with 
multiple impairments. Developing a communication system is a 
critical need of many students who are multiply impaired. 
Teaching activities are in a unit format and include content and 
extension activities for individual lessons. This reflects a 
national trend in early childhood and primary programs to use 
thematic unit materials to develop an array of critical skills. 
Examples of the Classroom Units include: school, me, leaves, 
mask, hat, bag, candy, pumpkin, corn, potato, apple, cranberry, 
turkey, cookie, present, tree, fruit, vegetable, bread, drinks, 
snacks, dessert, shape, valentine, spring, egg, animals, 
bathroom, kitchen, tools/household objects, music, toys, art, 
books, texture/ touch, size/measure, space/time, color/shape, 
letters, numbers, community helpers/ vehicles, community 
activities, summer, weather, dinosaurs, dragons and monsters, 
stories. The units can be used in several ways. The pages of 
the manual can be reproduced and sent home to parents to 
structure home carry-over. The skills/concepts/ vocabulary 



23 

portion can be used to monitor progress and achievement. The 
initial appearance of the skills, concepts, and vocabulary are 
typically at a very concrete level with a later occurrence at a 
more abstract level. The purpose of the units is to present 
skills/concepts/vocabulary in a rich context of real everyday 
objects and actions, rather than as isolated splinter skills. 

Work during FY 1994 . Field testing of the curriculum was 
conducted at 10 sites in September and October. The project 
author, Wendy Drezek, spent considerable time making revisions 
and additions to the materials, based on the compilation of 
recommendations generated from the field evaluation. Project 
staff worked closely with Dr. Drezek, coordinating revisions and 
working in a collaborative fashion. The considerable amount of 
time devoted to these revisions and additions has resulted in an 
improved and expanded group of classroom units and appendices. 
Margaret Costantino was authorized to do the illustrations for 
the document, now titled Move , Touch . Do . Her drawings were 
submitted August 15, 1994. Final editing and formatting of 
camera-ready copy was undertaken. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Editing and formatting will be 
completed. Author approval of final copy will be sought. Early 
in FY 1995, Move . Touch . Do will enter the production phase, with 
a production document developed and a time table established. A 
pilot run and final design review will be performed, after which 
the product should be authorized for full production sometime 
during FY 1985. 



24 



25 



Low Vision 



26 



27 

Assessment Program and Intervention Guidelines for Visually 
Impaired Children (continuing) 

Purpose: To evaluate the University of California Berkeley 
(UC Berkeley) Assessment Scales for Visually 
Impaired Children, and to determine their 
applicability for use with teachers of young 
visually impaired children 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Project Director 

Amanda Hall, Project Author and Codirector 
Linda Kekelis, Project Author 
Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 

Background . The Assessment Scales and Guidelines were 
submitted to APH from the field for consideration for publication 
by the authors. The U.C. Berkeley Assessment Scales for Visually 
Impaired Children were developed under a grant from the 
California State Department of Education. The overall goal of 
this project was to refine the scales through pilot-testing with 
a small number of blind and low vision children in the San 
Francisco Bay Area. The scales examine developmental milestones 
of particular importance to children with vision loss between 
birth and 2 years of age. For this project, (a) the scales were 
pilot-tested with 12 infants on the register of the Variety Club 
Blind Babies Foundation, (b) test items were refined for each of 
the scales, (c) a record-keeping system was developed for the 
scales, (d) preliminary developmental data for visually impaired 
infants between birth and 2 years were collected, and (e) inter- 
rater reliability for scoring of the scales was determined. 

The Assessment Program and Intervention Guidelines examine 
developmental milestones of particular importance to children 
with vision loss between birth and 2 years of age. The 
guidelines address the following domains: social/emotional 
development, language development, cognitive development, gross 
motor development, functional vision, and home environment. 

The Assessment Scales for Visually Impaired Children, along 
with the accompanying guidelines component, were reviewed by APH 
project staff. The program and guidelines were then prepared for 
review by several expert/ content reviewers identified by APH. 
Expert/ content reviewers were contacted; materials were prepared 
and sent to professionals who agreed to be expert /content 
reviewers. Project staff stayed in contact with the reviewers 
throughout the evaluation process. Printing House staff designed 
an evaluation plan to collect and analyze these data. 

Work during FY 1994 . The results of the expert /content 
review were compiled by APH staff. These data were posted and 
checked. An analysis of these data was completed. A number of 
modifications, additions, and revisions were suggested by the 



28 

reviewers, but generally, they felt that the content of the 
materials was very useful and would be a contributor to the 
field. There has been some delay in implementing these revisions 
because of the schedules and other demands on both the project 
director and the project coauthors. 

However, the APH project director was able to meet with 
Amanda Hall during the summer 1994. The listing of all 
suggestions for additions/deletions/revisions was reviewed and 
discussed. A plan was formulated, collaboratively, for revision 
of the materials. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . APH project staff will continue 
to meet with the project authors regarding program revisions and 
modifications. All changes will be made collaboratively with APH 
staff and the project authors. As needed, additional evaluation 
will be conducted to determine the usefulness of the materials 
and the applicability of the materials for assessing and 
intervening with young children with visual impairments. A "plan 
of action" has been developed and will be implemented. Time 
lines and a task analysis are to be developed. 



29 



Potential Assessment of Visual Efficiency (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop an assessment instrument useful in 

evaluating the potential for visual efficiency of 
young children and young children with multiple 
impairments, in addition to a visual disability 



Project staff: 



Sheri Moore, Project Codirector 
M. Beth Langley, Project Author 

and Project Codirector 
Debbie Johnson, Project Assistant 



Background . M. Beth Langley, author of the Functional 
Vision Inventory , has developed an instrument specifically 
designed to measure visual potential for visual efficiency in 
visually impaired multiply handicapped children. This new 
instrument is entitled the Potential Assessment of Visual 
Efficiency (PAVE) . The major components of the Potential 
Assessment of Visual Efficiency are as follows: 



Demographics 

Physical readiness 

Medication 

Time of assessment 

Seizure activity 

during assessment 
Reaction to handling 
Posture and movement 
Structural status 
Vision structure and 

function 
Orientation and 

mobility 
Functional use 
Physiological status 
Visual behaviors 
Gaze 



Eye movements 
Visual fields 
Cortical visual 

impairments status 
Acuity 
Levels of stimuli and 

responses 
Stimuli processed 
Response patterns 
Visual perception 
Summary and impressions 
Current level of visual 

functioning 
Visual variables 
Skills to be developed 

and/or refined 



Work during FY 1994 . Revisions and modifications to PAVE 
have resulted in a field test-ready manuscript. Work has been 
done in preparing sample kit materials for testing, and 
assembling tangible items for sample PAVE kits. Project staff 
have met to discuss modification to PAVE materials because of 
supply issues. It has been determined that a video instruction 
component would be a major asset to PAVE and project staff have 
met to outline the video. An evaluation document for PAVE has 
been constructed, and is ready for field test use. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The instrument will undergo a 
final field evaluation by both teachers of young 
children/multihandicapped children with visual impairments and 



30 

also content review experts. Examples of general areas of 
evaluation include: Usefulness of the materials, applicability 
to the targeted populations, areas of strength, areas of 
weakness, and so on. 

Project staff will also make all contacts with potential 
field evaluators and coordinate the distribution of project 
materials and evaluations to reviewers. Project staff will stay 
in contact with reviewers throughout the evaluation process. The 
data will be compiled, analyzed, and revisions will be made to 
the assessment instrument. Project staff will develop the 
instructional video script and make arrangements for production 
of video. Following final assembly of PAVE manuscript, 
tangibles, and video, a final expert review will be conducted 
prior to product entry into the pilot production phase. 



31 

Light Tablet (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop a light box sized for use on a child's 
desk and suited for home use by students served by 
itinerant teachers; the Light Tablet will use many 
of the materials designed for the larger Light Box 
and may include some new materials designed for 
its specific size and use 

Project staff: Suzette Wright, Project Director 

Tom Poppe, Model and Pattern Maker 

Background . During visits in the field, a number of 
teachers using the Light Box have expressed a need for a smaller 
version of this device which would easily fit on a child's desk 
or lap. In addition, this smaller, less expensive device could 
more easily be left in the home for use by students between 
teacher visits. A needs assessment conducted at the 
international gathering of the Association for Education and 
Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired in July of 1992 
gave priority to the need for such a device. In the state of 
Utah, parent advisors recommend all parents make light boxes for 
the home by adapting the "Light Brite," a toy which features an 
incandescent bulb which lights a surface approximately 9 x 12 
inches. Students likely to use the smaller Light Tablet are 
those who have residual vision and function from birth to 6 years 
of age. The smaller size of the Light Tablet, however, may 
extend its useability to students working in classrooms at desks. 

Various commercially available light boxes and "light desks" 
manufactured by toy makers were reviewed. The best of these were 
gathered and presented to a group of teachers of infant, 
preschool, and primary grade visually impaired students. They 
discussed their need for a smaller light box and the features 
such a device should incorporate; in addition, they assessed the 
viability of using some of the commercially available products 
presented. All were unanimous in requesting a smaller device. 
The toy light desks presented (and modifications made to these) 
did not meet their needs: illumination was insufficient, none 
featured a rheostat, and safety was a concern. Small 
commercially available light boxes made for use by photographers 
were well-priced (under $100.00) but also had insufficient 
illumination and were not dimmable. Key features requested by 
participants were: better illumination, ability to be dimmed by 
rheostat, optional battery-power, and a very light-weight design. 

Work during FY 1994 . After encountering difficulty locating 
a supplier for the components of the circuit which would power a 
light-weight, battery-powered light box, a source was ultimately 
discovered. Technical Research staff member James Robinson 
researched, designed, and built the electronic circuitry for the 
new light box prototype, which features: 



32 

• two 8-watt lamps (twice the illumination of similarly 
sized commercial light boxes) 

• a rheostat (not available on commercial light boxes) 

• optional battery power (six rechargeable Nicad batteries 
which power the box for up to 4 hours; batteries are 
recharged while in the box) 

• ability to run off standard 120 volt "wall" current (may 
simultaneously be used for instruction and recharged when 
plugged into a wall receptacle) 

• weight of approximately 5 pounds or less 

Once the lamps and electronic components of the prototype 
were determined, Tom Poppe designed a "shell" to house the 
components. It incorporates a prop able to recline at 10 
different inclinations which also serves as the box's carrying 
handle. Guides to hold overlays in place and keep materials from 
sliding off the work surface are featured. Injection molding of 
the shell may be a feasible alternative to thermoforming if 
projected sales are high enough; this possibility will be 
explored. 

A single prototype was formatively evaluated with students 
in a local preschool program. Some adjustments were made in an 
effort to correct a delay in the illumination of one of the 
fluorescent lamps. Two additional prototypes were built as a 
brief manual was written detailing maintenance and use of the 
light table and offering guidelines for its use with students. A 
questionnaire was created for the field evaluation. Clear and 
colored acetate sheets sized for the light table were cut and 
assembled into sets for mailing with the light tablet. Three 
sites were selected to evaluate the prototypes in early summer; 
during July the Utah School for the Blind retained its prototype 
for further evaluation in its summer program, and a fourth site 
was contacted to evaluate one of the prototypes returned from the 
field. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The completed questionnaires will 
be reviewed; indicated revisions will be made to the light 
tablet's design by model makers James Robinson and Tom Poppe. A 
cover or carrying case for the light box will be designed. 
Production approval will be requested; pending approval, the 
light tablet will be given to production with a document 
containing specifications, stated purpose of the new materials, 
assigned catalog number, and suggested number to be produced in 
the first run. 



33 



Braille 



34 



35 

Braille Language Program (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop a set of beginning language materials 
consisting of two components, spelling and 
English, which will minimize problems in these 
curricular areas commonly encountered by beginning 
braille students 

Project staff: Hilda Caton, Project Director 

Eleanor Pester, Assistant Director 

Eric Hamp, Linguist 

Betty Modaressi, Editor 

Beth Gordon, Project Assistant 

Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . This project was partially funded under a grant 
awarded to the APH by the Federal Research in Education of the 
Handicapped Program's Field Initiated Research competition which 
is administered by the Special Education Programs, Office of 
Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of 
Education. The resulting product has been approved for 
production. 

Work began on the project in January 1984. Information on 
achievement in language, spelling, and word study skills was 
obtained through administration by teachers of a special braille 
edition of the Stanford Achievement Test, Intermediate I, Form E 
to 57 blind 4th and 5th grade students to identify specific 
problems. Analyses were made of current spelling and English 
textbooks and of Patterns: The Primary Braille Reading Program . 
This information was used to develop the program. 

The program consists of four levels, A through D. Each 
level of the program was drafted, reviewed, revised, and sent to 
pilot test sites for evaluation. Then the consulting committee 
met and reviewed the materials. Further revisions were made 
based on these evaluations. 

These materials were then placed with over 50 students and 
approximately 20 teachers at field test sites across the country. 
Annual visits were made to the sites to explain the field 
evaluation procedures, to check on progress, and to observe the 
materials in use. Criterion-referenced tests were administered 
as the children completed each level. Test results were sent to 
APH for scoring and analysis. 

Federal support for the project ceased December 31, 1989, at 
the end of the project's 5th year, but field testing of the 
materials continued with new materials sent to the field test 
sites as students were ready for them. Revisions of the 
materials based on the field evaluations proved to be extensive. 



36 

Level A was prepared for production and made available for 
purchase during the 1992-93 school year. Revisions of Level B 
were incomplete at the time of Eddy Jo Bradley's death. Betty 
Modaressi took over the job of editing beginning with the 
revision of Level B which was completed and put into production. 

Work during FY 1994 . Level B became available for purchase 
during the 1993-94 school year. Level C received extensive 
revisions and instructions in the use of the slate and stylus 
were added. Level C materials have been prepared and turned over 
to production. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Level C will be completed and 
Level D will be revised and prepared for production. 



37 

Braillewritinq Program (formerly entitled Adult Braille Writing 
Program) (completed) 

Purpose: To develop an instructional braillewriting program 
with both slate and stylus and braillewriter 
components 

Project staff: Eleanor Pester, Project Director 

Beth Gordon, Project Assistant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 
Carol Roderick, Project Assistant 
Tom Poppe, Model and Pattern Maker 
Betty Wommack, Materials Developer 

Background . To provide a truly comprehensive program in 
braille instruction, it is necessary to teach students how to 
write as well as how to read braille. There is little research 
available on braillewriting for either children or adults. A 
survey done by Lowenfeld, Abel, and Hatlen (1969) reported that 
braillewriting was usually introduced to children at the same 
time as braille reading and that the braillewriter was usually 
used to teach braillewriting. No other research is available on 
braillewriting instruction. This includes research on the use of 
the braillewriter and the slate and stylus for children or 
adults . 

From the time planning for Patterns: The Primary Braille 
Reading Program and Read Again: A Braille Program for 
Adventitiously Blinded Print Readers began, the need for formal 
braillewriting instruction was recognized. An introduction to 
the use of the braillewriter for children was written as part of 
Patterns: The Primary Braille Spelling and English Program . 
After reviewing several slate and stylus programs for children 
and adults, it was felt that a program by Betty Wommack most 
closely corresponded to the philosophy of slate and stylus 
instruction which has been developed at APH. After discussing 
her program with project personnel, Betty Wommack revised and 
expanded it. A 10-cell device with pegs (Peg Slate) which could 
be pushed from one side to the other to simulate writing braille 
on a slate and then reading on the other side was developed and 
tried out on blind APH employees and summer school students at 
the Kentucky School for the Blind. Lessons on the braillewriter 
from the braille language program were revised to parallel the 
material covered in the slate and stylus program. 

Individual lessons, with practice exercises, to introduce 
braillewriting both on slate and stylus and on the braillewriter 
were completed. The Peg Slate and the Big Cell, an enlarged cell 
from a slate, were designed and incorporated into the lessons 



38 

along with the Swing Cell for introducing the bra illewr iter. An 
introduction and an appendix were written. As this program 
developed, it was felt that it could be used for children above 
4th grade reading level as well as adults. Therefore, all 
materials were prepared and the program was pilot tested with 
children. 

Work during FY 1994 . All program materials and devices were 
field tested with adults. Data collected from the pilot and 
field testing were analyzed and used to revise the program and 
devices. Illustrations were added to the print edition of the 
program which is being prepared for production. This disk will 
be used to make the braille edition of the program. The practice 
exercises have been edited for recording. Bids were sought on 
the manufacture of the Big Cell and the Peg Slate, new devices 
used in the program. Grish Plastics of St. John, Indiana 
received the contract and is doing the tooling and production of 
these devices. For all intents and purposes, work on this 
program which is called Braillewriting Dot by Dot is done. 



39 

Braille Literacy; Training. Mentoring, and Technological 
Services Program for Blind Adults (continuing) 

Purpose: In collaboration with the National Federation of 
the Blind, which will be working with APH as a 
subcontractor, products of this project will 
include a braille training program for use in 
rehabilitation centers; an extended training 
program for use by blind mentors in the clients 
home communities; and a publication documenting 
the potential usefulness of existing braille 
related technology. 

Project staff: Hilda Caton, Principle Investigator 

Beth Gordon, Assistant Director 
Eleanor Pester, Project Assistant 
Carol Roderick, Project Assistant 
Betty Modaressi, Editor 

Background . The initial proposal for this project was 
submitted to the National Institute on Disability and 
Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in May of 1992 by the American 
Printing House for the Blind (APH) and the National Federation of 
the Blind (NFB) . Funding for the 3 -year project began on October 
1, 1992. The project activities are aimed at blind adults who 
are considered illiterate because they have not learned to read 
and write braille and addresses one of the six national goals for 
education in the AMERICA 2000 (later GOALS 2000) initiative, that 
by the year 2000, "every American will be literate." 

The rationale for the project is based on the fact that 
various developments in the education of the blind have resulted 
in a substantial increase in the numbers of blind persons who are 
not proficient in the basic skills of reading, writing, and 
mathematical competency. These developments include, but are not 
limited to, mainstreaming, the shortage of certified teachers 
knowledgeable in braille, and technological developments. 

Research has shown that blind individuals who have not 
learned to read and write in braille are an at-risk population in 
a highly competitive employment market. There are also valid 
concerns about the decline of braille usage. The struggle of 
blind students to acquire skills useful in note-taking in order 
to pursue demanding courses of study, of professionals to 
belatedly acquire the most fundamental skills in reading and 
writing in a medium useful for competitive vocations, and the 
need for older blind persons to have the skills necessary for 
living independently in their own homes all mitigate in favor of 
the peer mentoring approach. This approach can serve as an 
antidote to the tendency to become discouraged and cease using 
what one has learned or to dismiss really learning braille 
altogether. The ongoing support and encouragement from mentors 



40 

who have mastered braille and use it regularly can readily 
address a key weakness in the typical pattern of braille 
instruction for adults who complete rehabilitation training in 
this country. That weakness being that a person will learn the 
very basics of braille in a rehabilitation center, but once the 
person leaves the center, there is no follow-up to help solidify 
braille skills and incorporate them into daily living. One of 
the main purposes of this project is to provide that needed 
follow-up. 

Advances in technology have resulted in the development of 
many devices that interface with computer screens to produce 
braille output and enhance braille literacy. A comprehensive 
evaluation of existing technology can determine the potential 
usefulness of a device in reducing braille illiteracy. 

After a meeting to plan the organization of the project, a 
through review of research was conducted in the areas of tactual 
development and tactual perception of blind adults. Existing 
programs designed to teach braille to adults were also reviewed 
and evaluated. 

These reviews formed the basis for the first meeting with 
the blind program consultants and project staff. Decisions were 
made concerning the order of introduction of Grade 2 
contractions, when to introduce the slate and stylus and the 
braille writer, and to combine the best sections of existing 
programs into the new curriculum. This information was used to 
develop the first draft of the new curriculum and the evaluation 
materials to be used by teachers and students. The first draft 
was reviewed by the consultants and revisions were made based on 
these recommendations. 

On July 4, 1993, Hilda Caton and Beth Gordon attended a 
meeting of the National Association to Promote the Use of Braille 
at the National Federation of the Blind's National Convention. 
Dr. Caton spoke on the Braille Literacy grant and a list of 
potential mentors was compiled. 

APH project staff met with the braille instructors from each 
of the four rehabilitation centers participating in the field 
evaluation on July 23-24, 1993. Instructors were trained in the 
use of the curriculum guide and evaluation materials. Additional 
names of potential mentors were suggested. The field evaluation 
of the braille reading and writing curriculum guide began in mid- 
September of 1993 and will continue through December 31, 1994. 

During the year, the technical consultants met in early 
January of 1993, at the National Center for the Blind. David 
Andrews was primarily responsible for evaluating the existing 
computer hardware and the various software programs were 
evaluated by the other consultants. 



41 

By May of 1993 the technology consultants had completed the 
initial assessment of technological devices that interface with 
computer screens to produce braille output. This evaluation was 
sent to APH project staff and plans were discussed for the 
dissemination of the report. 

Work during FY 1994 . APH project staff visited each of the 
rehabilitation centers from the end of October through mid- 
November to observe the field evaluation and answer questions. 
Instructors and students made suggestions for possible revisions. 

Mentors were selected to work with students in their home 
communities. Once students completed their training in the 
rehabilitation centers, the mentors began working with them at 
home. 

During December and January, a review of literature was 
conducted in the areas of braille writing and the use of mentors 
in literacy. This formed the basis for the first draft of the 
mentoring manual. On January 28-29, 1994, project staff met with 
the blind program consultants to review the manual for blind 
mentors. Suggestions for revisions were made and a second draft 
was written. 

On February 26-27, 1994, project staff and the chairman of 
the blind program consultants trained the mentors in the use of 
the mentoring manual. This included skills necessary to motivate 
students to incorporate the use of braille into their everyday 
lives, their responsibilities as mentors, and procedures to 
follow to evaluate the mentoring manual. The first mentors began 
working with students in the summer of 1994. 

The technology consultants met on January 29, 1994, to 
discuss the 2nd year's assessment of technological devices. The 
committee decided that the emphasis during FY 1994 will be screen 
access devices. The update from the 2nd year was completed in 
September, 1994. 

The braille technology evaluation from the first year will 
be disseminated by both APH and NFB. The evaluation will be 
available electronically from NFB and the print and braille 
versions will be available from APH by the end of September, 
1994. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Project staff will visit the 
rehabilitation centers before the field evaluation of the braille 
reading and writing curriculum guide is completed in December, 
1994. The field evaluation of the mentoring manual will be 
completed by March of 1995. Results from the field evaluations 
will be analyzed. 



42 

Project staff will meet with the blind program consultants 
to review the braille reading and writing curriculum guide and 
the mentoring manual. Necessary revisions will be made and the 
final documents will be prepared for production. 

The assessment of technological devices completed during the 
2nd year of the project will be prepared for production. Results 
will be available electronically from NFB. Print and braille 
versions will be available from APH. 

The technology consultants will continue to update their 
assessments of technological devices as they become available. 
The final draft of the assessment completed during the 3rd year 
of the project will be prepared for production and the final 
document will be disseminated by both APH and NFB. 

Project staff will complete the final report. All materials 
will be available in print and braille. 



43 



Educational Measures 



44 



- 45 

Career Interest Inventory (continuing) 

Purpose: To provide teachers and counselors with an 

instrument to explore educational and occupational 
possibilities for students 

Project staff: Bill J. Duckworth, Project Director 

Background . Level 2 of the Career Interest Inventory is a 
career-guidance instrument designed to provide information about 
students' educational goals, interest in a variety of school 
subjects and school-related activities, and interest in fields of 
work. It is designed to be used primarily with students in 
grades 10 through 12 , as well as adults. It provides information 
that can be used to help students explore post-secondary 
educational and occupational alternatives and to plan to make 
decisions about their careers. Permission to adapt was requested 
from The Psychological Corporation. 

Work during FY 1994 . Permission to adapt was received from 
The Psychological Corporation. In investigating the Inventory it 
was decided to adapt both Level 1 (grades 7-9) and Level 2 
(grades 10-12 and adults) into braille and large type. The 
braille administrative manual was written. There were no major 
changes in the large type adaptation so only notes as to 
administrative procedures were needed. This enabled APH to offer 
an administrative package that will be used for both braille and 
large type administration. Camera-ready copy was received from 
The Psychological Corporation to enable large type production and 
scanning for braille production. This instrument could not be 
obtained in electronic format. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The large type general directions 
will be written and the adaptation and production of this 
instrument will take place in both large type and braille. 



46 

Instruments Being Considered for Transition (continuing) 

Purpose: To locate and adapt instruments that will be 

useful in evaluating and counseling students in 
transition 

Project staff: Bill J. Duckworth, Project Director 

Background . The following instruments have been and are 
being investigated as possible tests that APH will adapt. 
Individuals from the publishers of the tests are being consulted 
to determine if time limits are too important a factor for each 
test, whether new normative data can be furnished if items need 
be dropped, and so forth. The tests, among others, will be 
presented to an advisory committee to determine which are the 
best instruments to be used in high schools and agencies to plan 
the transition into work or higher education for the student or 
client. 

Goals: A Performance Based Measure of Achievement . In 
seeking an achievement battery with short administration 
time and where subtests can be given individually with 
useful resulting information, this performance measure is 
being considered. 

Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) . The four subtests that 
can be adapted into braille of the DAT are: Verbal 
Reasoning, Numerical Ability, Spelling, and Language Usage. 
These subtests may be given alone and scored to reflect 
aptitude in these four areas. This adaptation is being 
considered because of requests and also because this measure 
ties in with the Career Interest Inventory giving the 
aptitude in these areas of interest. Further investigation 
is needed to determine if this or another like measure 
should be adapted. 

Wesman Personnel Classification Test . This is a test of 
general mental ability for use in selection of clerical, 
sales, supervisory, and managerial positions. Part I 
measures verbal reasoning ability. Part II requires more 
than a command of basic arithmetic skills. Speed or simple 
perception is minimized. 

Test of Written Language-2 (TOWL-2) . The TOWL-2 uses both 
essay analysis (spontaneous) format and traditional test 
(contrived) formats to assess various aspects of written 
language. The three component and format characteristics of 
the subtests are Conventional (style and spelling) , 
Linguistic (sentence combining and vocabulary) , and 
Conceptual (logical sentences) plus other spontaneous 



47 

aspects of writing. The test was standardized with students 
in grades 2 through 12. Instruments were ordered and 
examined as to adaptability. 

Further investigation took place and an advisory committee 
assisted in determining the appropriateness of these and other 
tests presented. 

Instruments were ordered and examined as to adaptability. 
Shortly after this an announcement was made that the Test of 
Written Language was being revised. A new edition of the test 
was received. 

Work during FY 1994 . The activities having taken place 
during this period are as follows: 

Goals: A Performance Based Measure of Achievement . With 
the availability of the Survey Batteries of the Iowa Test of 
Basic Skills, The Iowa Test of Educational Development, the 
Tests of Achievement and Proficiency, and the coming of the 
Stanford Achievement Series (9) : Abbreviated Edition there 
seems to be little present need for an additional 
achievement battery with short administration time. This 
instrument will be reviewed during the next Needs Meeting on 
Educational Measures. 

Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) . The electronic 
information for this instrument has been received from The 
Psychological Corporation and found to be what is needed to 
produce this test in large type and the four subtests that 
are adaptable into Braille. 

Wesman Personnel Classification Test . Permission has not 
been obtained to adapt this instrument. 

Test if Written Lancruaqe-2 (TOWL-2) . Preliminary planning 
has taken place in order to reach an agreement with Sharon 
Bradley-Johnson to develop the adapted manual for this 
instrument for the braille reader. This test is one that 
Dr. Bradley- Johnson, as a member of the Needs Committee, has 
encouraged being extremely familiar in the use of the 
instrument . 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The activities planned during 
this period are as follows: 

Goals: A Performance Based Measure of Achievement . A 
determination needs to be made as to the advisability of 
adding this instrument to the APH inventory. 

Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) . The adaptation and 
production of this instrument will take place. 



48 



Wesman Personnel Classification Test . A determination needs 
to take place as to the appropriateness of this instrument. 
A Needs Committee will be consulted as well as key personnel 
from various Rehabilitation Centers. 

Test of Written Lanauage-2 (TOWL-2) . This instrument will 
be adapted with the cooperation of Sharon Bradley-Johnson 
and APH personnel. 



49 

KevMath Revised; A Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics 
(continuing) 

Purpose: To provide teachers with a measure of 

understanding and application of important 
mathematics concepts and skills in grades 
Kindergarten through Grade 9 

Project staff: Bill Duckworth, Project Director 

Background . The KeyMath-R is an individually administered 
instrument with 13 subtests that will evaluate the main three 
areas of mathematics: basic concepts, applications, and 
operations. The test, as with the past edition, gives 
information needed to make instructional and remedial decisions; 
it also allows the teacher to observe the student' s approach to 
solving problems and judge whether the approach is built on a 
solid foundation of learning or has been learned incidentally and 
is faulty in such a way as to be, what is often called, a 
splinter skill. 

Identification for the need of this instrument came though 
repeated requests from individuals in the field. Permission to 
adapt has been requested from American Guidance Services. 

Work during FY 1994 . Permission to adapt was received from 
American Guidance Services. The tactile adaptation transcription 
notes were completed. The adapted manual was developed to the 
point it could be prior to production. (Some production changes 
will effect this document.) 

Work planned for FY 1985 . The braille transcribing notes 
will be turned over to production along with an adapted print 
manual. This instrument will be available in late 1994. 



50 

Riverside Publishing Company — Contract Tests (new) 

Purpose: Adaptation of Achievement Tests to be sold and 
inventoried by the publisher 

Project staff: Bill J. Duckworth, Project Director 

Background . The following instruments were adapted into 
braille by APH on contract with Riverside Publishing Company. 
The tests are sold by the Publisher and packaged with General 
Directions for administering braille tests and Administration 
Notes that will enable the examiner to adapt the regular manual 
for administering the tests. The Administration Notes include 
general changes in the test as well as the specific treatment of 
any items that had to be dropped, reworded, or changed in any 
way. For items dropped, Riverside contracted with the University 
of Iowa to recalibrate the norms for the subtests in question. 

Iowa Test of Basic Skills . Form K, Complete and Survey 
Batteries, Levels 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. 

Iowa Tests of Educational Development . Form K, Complete and 
Survey Batteries, Levels 15, 16, and 17/18. 

Tests of Achievement and Proficiency . Form K, Complete and 
Survey Batteries, Levels 15, 16, 17, and 18. 

Work during FY 1994 . These 26 academic measures were 
adapted and transcribed into braille and furnished to the 
publisher with the components listed above. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Reprinting of these measures will 
be upon request by the publisher. The ordering information will 
be listed in CARL ET AL and on a special page in the APH Test 
Brochure . 



51 

Stanford Achievement Series 19) . Abbreviated Edition (new) 

Purpose: To evaluate the item pool of the 1995 Stanford 

Achievement Series in preparation to adapting this 
series into braille and large type by APH 

Project staff: Bill Duckworth, Project Coordinator 

Background . The Psychological Corporation furnished APH the 
item pool that is presently being tested in preparation of the 
1995 Stanford Achievement Series (9) for the purposes of 
evaluating item per item adaptability into braille. 

Work during FY 1994 . Each item within the series was marked 
as to whether or not it could be adapted into braille and still 
test the same concept. The item pool numbered in excess of 5,000 
items. This information will be used when the final version of 
the test is developed. If an item that cannot be adapted has an 
equivalent that can, the second will be used in the final version 
of the test. This is especially important consideration by The 
Psychological Corporation in that APH would like to adapt the 
Abbreviated edition of the series in that often there is not 
enough time to administer, score, etc. the complete edition of 
the series in the public school setting. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The standardized edition of the 
abbreviated series will be received and items will be marked that 
will need substitute items. Adaptation and transcription will 
then take place during this period. 



52 

Videotape; Introduction to Psvchoeducational Assessment of 
Visually Impaired Persons (new) 

Purpose: To introduce psychologists and teachers to methods 
and materials for the evaluation of individuals 
who are visually impaired and blind 

Project staff: Bill Duckworth, Project Director 

Sharon Bradley- Johnson , Writer /Presenter 
The Beam Group, Video Coordinators 

Background . There has been a growing concern that many 
psychologists and teachers charged with evaluating the visually 
impaired and blind are not obtaining the instruction they need 
for this endeavor. It has been felt that an introduction to good 
practices in evaluation, reference to agencies that can assist, 
methods that are appropriate, and materials that are available 
for this use would be of benefit to these professionals. Video 
lends itself to providing the practitioner with a wide array of 
information giving lead to further investigation into 
accompanying (packaged with the video) and other materials 
available. Video was selected as the most appropriate medium for 
this purpose. 

Work during FY 1994 . In March 1994 the Project Director 
determined the video's objectives and overall strategy for 
accomplishing them in a video presentation. A meeting was held 
with the Beam Group, Sharon Bradley- Johnson, and the Project 
Director to determine what materials were needed to develop an 
approach and subsequently a script. A timeline was developed for 
the production. With the development of the script, arrangement 
of needed actors, and the gathering of materials, the filming 
took place in early August. Editing was done in September for an 
October release date. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . A brochure will be developed to 
accompany the video that will provide a concise summary of 
information provided in the video as well as providing references 
for sources of information. 



53 

Wide Range Achievement Test, Revised (continuing) 

Purpose: To provide an often requested achievement test 

that can be given quickly and provide educational 
information 

Project staff: Bill J. Duckworth, Project Director 

Background . The Wide Range Achievement Test - R has two 
separate forms: Level 1 is used for ages 5 years through age 12, 
Level 2 is used for ages 12 years up to 75 years. Each level has 
three subtests: reading, spelling, and arithmetic. The spelling 
and arithmetic subtests may be administered individually or to 
groups. The reading test may only be administered individually. 
Jastak Associates issues a large type version of these 
instruments so only a braille edition will be adapted. 

The revised edition was promised APH in July or August, 
1993. 

Work during FY 1994 . The instrument and permission to adapt 
were received in early 1994. The formats of the adapted manual 
and the braille test were determined. 

Work during FY 1995 . The adaptation and production of this 
instrument will take place. 



54 



55 



Microcomputer Applications 



56 



57 

Monitoring Technological Developments and Educational 
Applications (ongoing activities) 

Purposes: (1) To identify and determine priorities for 

microcomputer materials which support 
educational needs 

(2) To monitor technological developments and 
educational applications of technology 

(3) To disseminate information on current uses of 
technological aids 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Research Scientist 

Rob Meredith, Programmer I 
John Hedges, Programmer II 
Ben Gurevich, Programmer II 
Venus Elder, Research Assistant 
Fred Otto, Research Assistant 

The Microcomputer Group in the Department of Educational and 
Technical Research is involved in a wide variety of ongoing 
activities that enable it to stay informed of technological 
developments, educational applications of these developments, and 
particular computer-related needs of visually impaired persons. 
As the use of computers continued to increase during FY 1994, 
trends and changes in the computer industry and in education were 
monitored through literature reviews, attending conferences, 
classes, demonstrations and exhibits, talking with a variety of 
people involved in computer technology, and perusal of 
appropriate bulletin boards and national databases. 

Conferences, classes, demonstrations, and exhibits attended 
during FY 1994 included the 1993 Electronic Books Conference in 
New York, New York; the 1993 Closing the Gap Conference in 
Minneapolis, Minnesota; the 1994 International AER Conference in 
Dallas, Texas, the 1994 Technology for Persons with Disabilities 
Conference at the California State University at Northridge; the 
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Conference in 
Indianapolis, Indiana; the Kentucky Educational Technology 
Conference in Louisville, Kentucky; the Florida Assistive 
Technology Impact Conference and Florida Educational Technology 
Conference in Tampa, Florida; the ABCs of Early Intervention 
Conference held at the Tennessee School for the Blind in 
Nashville, Tennessee; the National Symposium on Educational 
Applications of Technology for Persons with Sensory Disabilities 
in Rochester, New York; the Kentucky Assistive Technology 
training session in Louisville, Kentucky; a Companion2000 
training session in Louisville, Kentucky; and several training 
sessions given by APH staff on various computer-related products. 



58 

The journals and newsletters reviewed on a regular basis 
included GS+ . A2 Central . PC Magazine . The Catalyst . Computer 
World . Mainstream . The Computing Teacher . RE ; view . Technological 
Horizons in Education Journal . Electronic Learning . Technology 
and Learning , and Closing the Gap . The bulletin board services 
(BBS) and databases scanned on a regular basis in order to 
monitor and review materials for vision access included the 
Assistive Technology User's Group BBS, Blazie Engineering BBS, 
GEnie, GW Micro BBS, HumanWare BBS, InTrec Software BBS, 
MicroTalk BBS, Supra BBS, CompuServe, Handicapped BBS, 
Microsystems, and others. Several demonstration programs were 
obtained this way for trial review. 

Members of the Microcomputer Group also conducted or 
participated in numerous in-house committee meetings dealing with 
current and future technology-related issues and projects. 
Topics of interest for discussion included access to consumer 
products and public machines such as ATMs and musical instrument 
displays; authoring programs;, Braille 'n Speak and Braille 'n 
Speak Classic; braille displays; Companion2000; computer 
platforms; graphical user interfaces; multimedia; networking; 
notetaking devices; programming; screen access programs and 
speech synthesizers; education reform; career opportunities; and 
more. In December, a special meeting regarding the future of the 
Speaqualizer was conducted by the Microcomputer Group. A 
tentative plan for making needed revisions to this device was 
devised. The Microcomputer Group was also contacted concerning 
APH's possible interest in a new hand-held scanner which connects 
to a television and enlarges or enhances the print over which the 
scanner passes. The inventor, Mr. Eakle, was invited by the 
Marketing Department to demonstrate this low vision aid to APH 
staff. The Microcomputer Group participated in the meeting with 
Mr. Eakle. This device (formerly MagnaSight, now Big Picture) 
was made available from APH during FY 1994. 

The Microcomputer Group developed an in-depth plan to set up 
a local area network in the Department of Educational Research. 
This plan was received with acceptance and support. The 
Microcomputer Group is working cooperatively with Information 
Systems in order to make certain the network is set up with the 
long term networking goals of APH in mind. 

An initial meeting with representatives from the 
Microcomputer Group, members of APH's Educational and Advisory 
Services and Marketing Departments, and Management was held to 
discuss the possibility of setting up an APH BBS. The idea was 
supported and the Microcomputer Group received approval to 
develop a plan detailing equipment and personnel requirements in 
order to set up, operate, and maintain a BBS. 



59 

Another responsibility of the Microcomputer Group is to 
provide information on technology to the field. In order to 
disseminate information on new technology-related products from 
APH, a demonstration of PC Tvper was provided by a member of the 
Microcomputer Group during APH's 1993 Annual Meeting, a 
presentation on PC Tvper was given at the 1993 CTG Conference, 
five sessions on PC Typer were provided to the Jefferson County, 
Kentucky vision teachers during an in-service at APH on new 
technology-related products, a poster session on PC Typer was 
given at the 1994 International AER Conference; a formal 
presentation and poster session on PC Typer were given at the 
National Symposium on Educational Applications of Technology for 
Persons with Sensory Disabilities; sessions on using the Nomad by 
APH and Big Picture were provided during a professional 
development workshop for teachers of students with visual 
impairments held at the Kentucky School for the Blind and APH in 
June, 1994; a training session on using TEXT2000 and a 
demonstration of Big Picture were given to instructors at the New 
Mexico School for the Blind, and a presentation on using 
computers and adaptive technology with young students was given 
at the ABCs of Early Intervention Conference. Demonstrations 
were also provided to various individuals visiting APH. These 
included visitors from the Hadley School, visitors from Germany 
working primarily in the area of rehabilitation, a Russian book 
publisher, and a businessman from Poland who makes adaptive 
technology available in parts of Europe. Training sessions on 
several of APH's computer products were also provided to APH 
personnel by the Microcomputer Group. 

Programmers in the Microcomputer Group continued to increase 
their knowledge and skills by learning object-oriented 
programming with C++; learning to use the Turbo Vision 
Development Toolkit, which is an additional library for Pascal to 
help programmers write programs; learning to create programs 
using the Quest 4.2 Multimedia Authoring System; learning about 
new applications of digital signal processing chip technology and 
the growing multimedia trend to have digitized speech and 
text-to-speech software included in commercial mainstream 
computers; investigating the use of the Speech Synthesizer 
Interface Library from Arkenstone for use with APH's talking 
software, reviewing new Windows screen reading applications, and 
reviewing several Windows products for low vision adaptation. 
The programmers in the Microcomputer Group also continued to 
provide technical support to APH personnel as well as to 
consumers . 

Manuals for PC Typer, Big Picture, and the Braille 'n Speak 
Classic were written or edited and prepared for production by 
members of the Microcomputer Group. Other manuals such as the 
Textalker-GS Owner's Manual were updated as needed. The 
Microcomputer Group worked in cooperation with Educational and 
Advisory Services to write or edit information for the new 



60 

Instructional Aids Catalog and brochures for computer-related 
products. The Marketing Department and Microcomputer Group have 
worked together on a joint marketing project regarding TEXT2000. 
It was decided to provide 10 textbooks to the New Mexico School 
for the Blind in the TEXT2000 format and to provide training on 
using TEXT2000 to the teachers, librarians, and media 
specialists. After using the books for the first semester of the 
1994-95 school year, the instructors will be given a 
questionnaire to complete regarding advantages and limitations, 
likes and dislikes of using textbooks provided in the TEXT2000 
format . 

In an effort to continue disseminating information to the 
field on APH's microcomputer materials projects, products, and 
services, as well as selected technological needs, applications, 
products, and services pursued outside APH, the Fall/Winter 1993 
and Spring/ Summer 1994 issues of the Micro Materials Update (MMU) 
were written and published. They were made available in print 
and recorded formats. The Fall/Winter 1993 publication was made 
up of 7,800 print copies and 750 cassette copies. Of these, 
5,146 print copies and 486 cassette copies were mailed to 
persons, agencies, schools, and programs on its database. The 
remaining copies were placed in stock. The additional copies 
were sent to individuals, professionals in the field, schools, 
agencies, and companies as requested, in response to inquiries 
regarding computer-related products, and as handouts at 
conferences, presentations, exhibits, and at demonstrations of 
computer products for individuals with visual impairments. 

At the request of the Ninth Microcomputer Advisory 
Committee, echoed by members of APH's 1993 Educational Research 
and Development Committee, special articles on funding and using 
computers with blind or low vision preschool children were 
included in the MMU. A new section dedicated to family issues 
regarding technology was started in the Fall/Winter 1993 issue 
and will continue in future issues. In a market review of 
electronic readers, one of the major findings was the 
identification of growing numbers of products available for text 
access that are speech and large print adapted for friendly 
configuration and use by blind individuals. An article was 
prepared to distribute the findings and highlight software that 
can be used in conjunction with adaptive technology to access 
electronic text documents. The article on "Reading 
Electronically" was published in the Spring/ Summer 1994 issue of 
the MMU. Initial work on providing the MMU electronically on a 
bulletin board service and on an IBM compatible disk as text 
files was begun. The 1994 Fall/Winter issue will include a brief 
survey regarding media preferences of the readership. 

In cooperation with APH's Consumer Products Specialists, 
information, answers, and suggestions on a variety of questions 
regarding computer products, services, and issues were provided 



61 

to consumers as requested. A member of the Microcomputer Group 
spoke with Dr. Karen Ross from the Carroll Center for the Blind 
to provide information that might be helpful to the Center in 
obtaining funds to collect, compile, and analyze data on the 
computer literacy rate among school-age blind students. APH's 
annotated bibliography covering technology-related topics from 
1980 to 1991 that are applicable to visually impaired persons 
continued to be provided free on 3 1/2" disks formatted for Apple 
II or IBM and compatible computers. These were sent to 
interested persons requesting a copy and given as handouts during 
presentations and demonstrations. 

In order to evaluate user satisfaction with APH 
microcomputer products, to monitor and improve project planning 
and management, and to continue identifying users of APH's 
computer materials, a User Survey Card is packaged with each of 
APH's computer-related products. Suggestions for changes to 
current products and ideas for future technology-related products 
were entered onto a database. A compilation of the data from 
these cards was shared during a meeting with the Educational 
Research and Development Committee. Requests for information, 
questions and difficulties with products that were expressed on 
the cards were addressed by phone, mail, or fax by members of the 
Microcomputer Group. Consumers who responded to the User Survey 
Cards continued to be entered onto the database to receive free 
subscriptions to the MMU. 

Two activities planned for FY 1995 include a 
technology-related survey of the field and the Tenth 
Microcomputer Advisory Committee Meeting. The survey was 
recommended by members of APH's Educational Research and 
Development Committee at its Interim meeting. 

These activities and more assist members of APH's 
Microcomputer Group with their goals to stay abreast of current 
technology and its applicability to people with visual 
impairments, to adapt and develop appropriate computer products 
needed by visually impaired individuals, and to actively 
disseminate information on technology to the field. 



62 



63 



Products 



64 



65 

Authoring Program (completed) 

Purpose: To assist the microcomputer group in developing 

more software and instructional material by using 
authoring techniques 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Director 

Venus Elder, Project Assistant 
Ben Gurevich, Programmer 
Rob Meredith, Programmer 

Background . Members of the Seventh and Eighth Microcomputer 
Advisory Committees suggested APH staff use authoring software to 
create lessons in high interest areas like math drill and 
practice, early childhood, and high interest low vocabulary age 
appropriate interactive instructional and practice material. 
Using authoring software would enable the Microcomputer Group to 
develop more badly needed material without actually requiring any 
programming for those areas where it would be appropriate. (See 
write-up on High Interest Low Vocabulary Age Appropriate 
Software . ) 

Work during FY 1994 . After review of several authoring 
programs, it was decided by the Microcomputer Group that the 
Quest 4.2 Multimedia Authoring System was the best system to 
fulfill the project requirements. APH, therefore, purchased 
Quest in the summer of 1994. (See write-up on Museum Math 
Project for immediate use of the Quest Authoring System.) 

Work planned for FY 1995 . No future development of an 
authoring program is planned since an appropriate authoring 
language was found. Additional components, however, such as 
graphics libraries will be investigated and a speech interface 
for Quest will be written to allow members of the Microcomputer 
Group to create speech accessible lessons as easily as possible. 
(See write-up on Speech Interface for Quest.) 



66 

High Interest Low Vocabulary Age Appropriate Software 

(continuing) 

Purpose: To adapt/develop high interest low vocabulary age 
appropriate microcomputer materials for 
development ally delayed students junior high and 
above 

Project staff: Venus Elder, Project Director 

Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 
Ben Gurevich, Programmer 
Rob Meredith, Project Assistant 
John Hedges, Project Assistant 

Background. The Seventh Microcomputer Advisory Committee 
gave a high-priority to adapting or developing high interest low 
vocabulary age appropriate software for development ally delayed 
blind students junior high and above. In order to identify and 
determine priorities for this area, a "High Interest Low 
Vocabulary (High/Low) Age Appropriate Software Needs Meeting" was 
held. In preparation for the meeting, an annotated high interest 
low vocabulary bibliography was compiled. 

The target audience identified by the High/Low committee 
members was: Totally blind, marginally academic students, junior 
high and above, who are behind in reading and math (for a variety 
of reasons) , and are reading at a fourth-fifth grade level. 
During the meeting, three major priority areas were identified: 
(1) daily living skills, (2) study skills, and (3) job-seeking 
skills. Top priority for daily living skills was given to 
handling money, money identification, making change, and 
budgeting. The top priorities determined for study skills were 
outlining, determining important facts, note-taking, and writing 
papers. The top priorities for job-seeking skills were career 
exploration and interest assessment. 

The Seventh Microcomputer Advisory Committee recommended: 
(1) that the Micro Group initially create or adapt a single 
software selection with support materials in each of the three 
major areas identified; (2) that the computer-related activities 
within each of the three major priority areas be related to 
reading, writing, and math; (3) that the Micro Group plan on 
software being used as a supplement to class or by an itinerant 
teacher or in a resource room; (4) that the software be 
reinforced with braille, large type, and/or audio materials for 
student use; and (5) that if APH develops these programs from 
scratch, a programming language be used which allows the software 
to work on IBMs and compatibles and Apple II computers. If this 
cannot be done or if programs are being adapted rather than 
developed, make the daily living skills and study skills software 
usable on Apple II computers; the job-seeking skills software 
usable on IBMs and compatibles. 



67 

Software titles from a variety of companies including MCE, 
Job World, and Sunburst were previewed for possible project 
development. A variety of materials dealing with handling money, 
money identification, making change, and budgeting were reviewed. 
Concepts were pulled from software which met the project 
priorities regarding dealing with money. A listing of support 
personnel and other resources was compiled and a database was 
started to keep track of the information. 

Work during FY 1994 . Representatives from the Royal London 
Society for the Blind and Queen Alexandria College of England 
demonstrated a CD-ROM title called "Skills from Experience." 
This training piece covered resume writing and job searching. 
Though helpful, it proved to be too visual and did not truly 
provide access to the information for blind users. Several money 
and budgeting selections from Hartley Courseware were reviewed 
for possible project development. A High Interest Low Vocabulary 
Age Appropriate Software subcommittee consisting of five 
teachers/professionals and APH's Microcomputer Group met to 
discuss basic areas/content the software and support materials 
should follow (goals and objectives) . Suggestions were recorded, 
sample curriculum designs discussed, authoring languages 
demonstrated, and commercially available board games addressing 
budgeting skills were shared. 

Testing of the Tutor-Tech authoring program revealed that 
the EchoTalk external command feature did not provide true text- 
to-speech for project development. As suggested by the High Low 
subcommittee, the IBM Pilot authoring program was purchased and 
tested. Though promising, IBM Pilot was found to be a lower 
level language without key features necessary for project 
development. In addition, the IBM Linkway authoring language was 
reviewed, but did not have the necessary features to provide 
speech access. The interface was too graphical for blind users. 
The Quest 4 . 2 Multimedia Authoring System was tested and found to 
have the features necessary to fulfill project requirements. 
Quest was purchased to begin project development. (See write-up 
on the Authoring Program for further details.) 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Work will resume on designing a 
software selection using Quest to teach budgeting concepts in 
real life situations. The script and storyboards will be 
drafted. Support materials and documentation will be designed 
and drafted. The lessons will be created and field testers will 
be identified. 

After initial in-house review and modifications, the 
software and drafted support materials/documentation will be 
field tested. The software and drafted support 
materials/documentation will be revised utilizing the comments, 
ideas, and suggestions of the reviewers. Members of the 
Microcomputer Advisory Committee will review the revised software 



68 

and support materials/documentation. Changes will be made based 
on the committee's suggestions. A final in-house evaluation will 
be conducted and final changes made to the software and support 
materials/documentation. 



69 

Large Print Program (discontinued) 

Purpose: To provide large print output to the screen for 
use on the Apple II series of computers 

Project staff: Rob Meredith, Project Codirector/ Programmer 

Debbie Willis, Project Codirector 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . The participants of the first seven 
Microcomputer Advisory Committee meetings focused on providing 
material for totally blind computer users. The committee members 
felt that partially sighted users had more of a software 
selection from which to choose with off-the-shelf software. The 
Eighth Microcomputer Advisory Committee recommended focusing more 
on both totally blind and partially sighted users by 
incorporating large print into new titles released at APH. They 
also advised that large print output for those programs that 
support printing would be desirable. While large print output 
for future titles from APH will be addressed primarily in the 
development or selection of an authoring program, APH is 
developing a large print program which will enlarge many Apple II 
off-the-shelf software programs running on an Apple IIGS 
computer. This program will be the equivalent of a large print 
version of Textalker-gs. 

Work during FY 1994 . Members of APH's 1994 Interim Research 
and Development Committee recommended that the Microcomputer 
Group reconsider the need for this project. After careful 
consideration, it was decided that the Large Print Program would 
be terminated. Reasons include the fact that the Apple IIGS 
computer has not been manufactured since December of 1992, and 
timely delivery of the product would most likely be impossible. 
Termination of this product also permits allocation of 
programming time to newer more needed projects. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Since the project has been 
discontinued, no work is planned. 



70 

Math Drill and Practice Program (continuing) 

Purpose: To adapt/develop math programs for 

practicing/reinforcing skills in addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division, decimals, 
fractions, percentages, grouping and regrouping 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Director 

John Hedges, Programmer 
Rob Meredith, Project Assistant 
Venus Elder, Project Assistant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . At the Seventh and Eighth Microcomputer 
Advisory Committee Meetings, the participants recommended using 
an authoring program to adapt/develop some math drill-and- 
practice software. The need for accessible math software has 
been reinforced by teachers, resource personnel, computer 
coordinators, parents, and others at conferences, on the phone, 
and in response to User Survey Card questions. Since two of the 
GOALS 2000 pertain directly to mathematics and other goals 
involve increasing the graduation rate and the necessity of every 
adult American possessing the knowledge and skills necessary to 
compete in a global economy, and since blind students typically 
fall behind their sighted peers on standardized math tests, it 
was determined to be an appropriate and worthwhile project to 
pursue a software based math program. 

Work during FY 1994 . Work this fiscal year involved 
searching for an appropriate authoring program. The Quest 
Authoring Language was evaluated and found to be acceptable for 
developing talking software that would run on IBM compatible 
computers. Some math books and software programs were also 
reviewed and some resource materials were collected. The 
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Conference (NCTM) 
held in Indianapolis, Indiana was attended for the purposes of 
locating and/or examining textbooks, workbooks, software, 
resource personnel, and resource materials, and attending 
sessions to learn about the current NCTM standards, new teaching 
strategies, techniques, manipulatives, and more. After reviewing 
a variety of materials and talking with people in the field, it 
was concluded that the program should be a tutorial as well as 
provide practice in developing mathematical skills and 
reinforcing the math skills learned. The ability to understand, 
restate in words, set up, and work word problems was determined 
to be of great importance and should be included as part of the 
program . 

No single math text, workbook, or software program was found 
that contains all or most of the desired features. It was 
determined that the program will need to be pulled together from 
a number of sources. 



71 

Work planned for FY 1995 . One or more math consultants to 
assist with the project will be identified. A variety of 
materials will be obtained, and math concepts and problems will 
be pulled together. Permission to use materials from other 
sources will be sought if necessary. The framework and design of 
the software program will be determined and the lessons will be 
developed. Initial in-house reviews, followed by expert reviews, 
will be conducted and changes will be made based on these 
reviews. Members of the Tenth Microcomputer Advisory Committee 
will then be given the opportunity to evaluate the math program. 
Modifications will be made based on this group's comments, ideas, 
and suggestions. Field evaluators will be identified and 
contacted. After accompanying materials are prepared, the 
program will be sent out for field evaluation. 



72 

Microcomputer Access Technology Project for Persons with Visual 
Impairments (continuing) 

Purpose: To provide lessons on specific access devices and 
applications for use by students or clients with 
visual impairments 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Director 

Fred Otto, Project Assistant 
Rob Meredith, Project Assistant 
John Hedges, Project Assistant 

Background . Members of the Ninth Microcomputer Advisory 
Committee recommended that lesson plans be developed for specific 
devices and applications. Late in FY 1993, Randall Harley 
contacted APH regarding a project under his guidance being 
supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The 
Microcomputer Access Technology Project consists of seven 
training packets covering AppleWorks, BEX, Braille 'N Speak, 
Duxbury with WordPerfect, ProWords/ProBraille, Tactile Graphics, 
and ZoomText. These materials were written by Linda Bishop and 
several doctoral students at Peabody College of Vanderbilt 
University. The packets were reviewed and field tested in 
teacher training sites around the country. Part of the project's 
commitment was to reproduce the final packets and make them 
available to teacher trainers and trainees in order for them to 
learn to use computer access eguipment. APH agreed to work 
cooperatively on this project to review, revise, and produce the 
packets . 

Work during FY 1994 . Three of the packets, AppleWorks, BEX, 
and ProWords/ProBraille, were reviewed and revised by the 
Microcomputer Group. The language and instructions for use were 
considered straightforward and easy enough to be used by high 
school students. Copies of the revised packets were sent to Dr. 
Harley and Ms. Bishop for approval. Production approval was 
sought and obtained at the spring 1994 interim meeting of APH's 
Educational Research and Development Committee. Each of these 
three packets was prepared for large print and recorded versions 
and turned over to Technical Research for production. Each 
packet will be made available in a large print/ recorded set as it 
is completed. The four remaining packets were reviewed, revised, 
and sent to Dr. Harley and Ms. Bishop for approval. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The appropriateness of each of 
the remaining packets for student use will be determined by APH 
staff. Production approval for Braille 'n Speak, ZoomText, and 
Duxbury with WordPerfect will be sought at APH's 1994 Annual 
Meeting. If production approval is received, these packets will 
be prepared for large print and recorded versions and turned over 
to Technical Research for production. 



73 

Speaoualizer (reopened/upgrading) 

Purpose: To produce a hardware based screen access system 
for IBM and compatible computers 

Project staff: Rob Meredith, Project Director 

Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 
John Hedges, Project Assistant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . The Speaqualizer is a hardware based access 
package for IBM PC and compatible computers. It permits the 
blind user to examine text displayed on the screen through the 
use of a custom keypad and speech synthesizer. 

Speaqualizer was developed by the Research Committee of the 
National Federation of the Blind. After obtaining production 
approval from the Educational Research and Development Committee, 
APH research staff members began working with the National 
Federation of the Blind to continue development of the device's 
firmware. It became available from APH in July 1987. Since 
then, several enhancements have been introduced and offered to 
existing users as upgrade packages that provide the new features 
to existing Speaqualizers. These include features like the 
ability to completely silence the speech for use by sighted 
coworkers, improved cursor handling performance, and improvements 
with respect to use in word processing applications. The boards 
were also modified to work on the new, faster machines becoming 
available. 

Work during FY 1994 . In light of other adaptive technology 
currently available, a meeting was held at APH with 
representatives from the National Federation of the Blind and the 
adult blind community to determine whether APH should continue to 
make the Speaqualizer available. Discussions made clear the fact 
that the Speaqualizer is the only device that functions in 
particular situations. APH was also made aware, however, that a 
new version of the firmware was needed. Source code for the 
Speaqualizer firmware was given to Brian Buhrow, a programmer 
affiliated with the National Federation of the Blind in 
California. Mr. Buhrow completed some minor bug fixes and 
changes to the command structure. He also obtained a new version 
of the speech firmware used in the machine from RC Systems. The 
new speech firmware corrects an annoying problem with past 
Speaqualizers which caused them to lock up. In-house and field 
testing of the revised firmware continued. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . After it is found that the new 
firmware is stable and acceptable, a new manual and upgrade kit 
will be completed and made available. This new version will be 
known as version 2.4. The new firmware will also be used in new 
Speaqualizers sold. 



74 

Speech Interface for Quest (new) 

Purpose: To allow members of the Microcomputer Group to 

create speech accessible lessons using Quest 4 . 2 
Multimedia Authoring System 

Project staff: Benjamin Gurevich, Programmer 

John Hedges, Programmer 

Background . During review of Quest version 4.2, it was 
determined by members of the Microcomputer Group that a routine 
be developed to allow nonprogramming staff to create speech 
accessible lessons to fulfill various project requirements. 

Work during FY 1994 . The coding of routines for speech 
accessibility using the Quest Authoring Language (QAL) was begun 
in summer 1994. The initial version of QAL speech library was 
finished and checked in August 1994 . 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The work planned for FY 1995 
includes: (a) making QAL speech library revisions based on 
comments from members of the Microcomputer Group, (b) preparing 
how-to-use instructions, (c) testing Quest's speech compatibility 
with various speech access drivers and speech synthesizers, and 
(d) checking Quest's speech compatibility with a variety of IBM 
PCs. 



75 

Speech Synthesizer Interface Library (new) 

Purpose: To provide uniform programming support for most 
major IBM and compatible speech synthesizers in 
APH software for IBM and compatible computers by 
learning synthesizer programming involved in and 
implementation of the SSIL product 

Project staff: John Hedges, Project Director 

Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 

Ben Gurevich, Programmer 

Rob Meredith, Project Assistant 

Background . The need for uniform software support and 
programming grew out of initial development and testing of the 
first IBM talking software at APH. It was determined that a 
common speech synthesizer access method did not exist on a simple 
level, and that screen reading software varies widely in 
functionality. 

Consultant, Larry Skutchan identified the Speech Synthesizer 
Interface Library (SSIL) from Arkenstone as a useful and free 
toolkit that addresses this exact problem. It is used in a 
growing number of commercial speech products, and has continuing 
development and support from Arkenstone. The complexities and 
evolution of speech synthesizers for the IBM and compatibles 
environment will require a comprehensive support method like SSIL 
to meet the diverse needs of the classroom. This toolkit would 
make talking software directly control and operate the speech 
synthesizer, thus removing the need for screen reading software 
to operate in conjunction with the APH program. 

Work during FY 1994 . Contact was made with Arkenstone to 
acquire the software toolkit, 1992 version. A brief review 
revealed the need to devote more time to learning the 
functionality of the speech synthesizer model and specifics of 
the toolkit. A second release, SSIL 1.1 and companion 1994 
drivers disk, was received and reviewed briefly. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Work to learn and implement the 
SSIL functions in PC Typer and other new talking software will 
continue. A new version of the toolkit may be adopted, when 
available. This work will involve learning the synthesized 
speech model and integration by programming changes in other 
software to incorporate this new toolkit. 



76 

Talking Educational Game (new) 

Purpose: To produce a talking educational game for use on 
IBM and compatible computers 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Codirector 

Rob Meredith, Project Codirector 
John Hedges, Project Assistant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . During the past two years, APH has received 
numerous comments from teachers, resource personnel, computer 
coordinators and specialists, and parents at conferences, through 
telephone conversations, and on User Survey Card feedback, 
regarding the tremendous need for educational games for use by 
totally blind students using IBM and compatible computers. 
Commercial software for IBM and compatible computers is nearly 
always graphics based and therefore cannot be read through a 
speech synthesizer. While there are many public domain games 
available for Apple II computers, speech accessible games for the 
IBM seem to be almost nonexistent. 

Work during FY 1994 . Recommendations from the field were 
seriously considered and the decision to pursue a talking game 
was made. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Members of the Microcomputer 
Group will begin investigating games and will talk with people in 
the field who have knowledge of the availability and 
accessibility of games. Input for this project, however, will 
primarily come from the Tenth Microcomputer Advisory Committee 
and from responses to a field survey that will address computer 
related needs and applications. APH will either adapt or develop 
a talking educational game and/or will compile a list of some 
currently available games for distribution. If a list of speech 
accessible games is compiled, it will be made available through 
APH * s Micro Materials Update . 



77 

Talking Literacy Kit for Apple II Computers (TALK II) (completed) 

Purpose: To provide an introductory set of speech- 
accessible computer software and related materials 
for any of the current Apple II family of 
computers which could be easily integrated into 
existing programs of computer literacy or 
introduction to computers for legally blind youth 
through adult beginners 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Director 

Venus Elder, Project Assistant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background. During the fall and winter of 1985, the Talking 
Apple Literacy Kit (TALK) : lie edition was in the production 
pipeline of APH. The product became available in September 1986. 
In response to requests from the field, APH offered sets of the 
Brailled Keyboard Model for the Apple lie, a component of the 
TALK: lie, as a separate item. 

At the Fifth Microcomputer Advisory Committee Meeting, a 
revision of the kit to include all current Apple II computers 
received high priority. Components of the TALK II were to 
include two software selections with documentation; one to 
introduce word processing and talking games, and provide keyboard 
practice, and the other to serve as an introduction to any of the 
Apple II computers and their special keys, the Textalker speech 
output program and Echo speech synthesizer; a Braille Keyboard 
Overlay for the Apple IIGS, a Brailled Keyboard Model of the 
Apple lie, a computer parts collection, and a Teacher's Manual. 

Prototypes of the Brailled Keyboard Overlay for the Apple 
IIGS were developed, checked for accuracy, tested for legibility, 
and a brief supplement to accompany the product was written. 
After some revisions, the materials were completed and turned 
over to production. In response to consumer requests, it was 
decided to offer the Braille Keyboard Overlay for the Apple IIGS 
as a separate product as well as a component of the Talking 
Literacy Kit. 

The software disk entitled APH Presents the Talking Apple 
was reprogrammed to convert the modules over to ProDOS, to 
reorganize the source code for current editors in use, and to 
make the program recognize the wider variety of Apple II 
computers currently available. Many improvements were made to 
the program. It was updated to include features of the Apple 
IIGS, new features of Textalker, and suggestions from the field. 
APH Presents the Talking Apple underwent additional programming 
changes to make it compatible for use with the Slotbuster and 
DoubleTALK. 



78 

Careful consideration was given to program content and 
structure. Various features related to these were reorganized 
and sections were rewritten as needed. Other changes were of a 
textual nature. These included grammar and punctuation changes, 
reordering of sentences, and rewording options, explanations, and 
reinforcers. As recommended by members of the Eighth 
Microcomputer Advisory Committee (to include appealing features 
wherever possible and appropriate in APH's talking software), one 
new feature added was the use of sound in some parts of the 
program . 

Extensive testing was performed throughout the reprogramming 
process. Programming changes to APH Presents the Talking Apple 
Computer were completed. A User's Manual to accompany the 
software was drafted, edited, and a large type camera-ready 
master was prepared. 

Due to consumers ' request to make the original APH Presents 
the Talking Apple selection available independent of the total 
kit, it was decided to offer APH Presents the Talking Apple 
Computer as a separate product as well as a component of TALK II. 
APH Presents the Talking Apple Computer was produced and made 
available as a separate product during the first half of FY 1993. 
It included a 5 1/4 inch and a 3 1/2 inch disk. Each disk 
contains both the program and the User's Manual , with a manual 
reading program provided. Large type and recorded versions of 
the manual were also packaged with the disks. The software is 
for use with the Apple II family of microcomputers having at 
least 128K of memory, a 5 1/4 inch or 3 1/2 inch disk drive, and 
an appropriate speech synthesizer. 

The introductory word processing program, introductory 
games, and keyboard practice were programmed for speech and large 
print output to the screen. The program was named LetterTALK+ . 
Documentation for LetterTALK+ was expanded to include "Extension 
Activities" as well as the User ' s Manual in accessible formats. 
Since the extension activities required tangible models of the 
Apple lie and IIGS keyboards, it was decided to include a 
Brailled Keyboard Model of the Apple lie and a Brailled Keyboard 
Overlay for the Apple IIGS as components of the LetterTALK+ 
package. Extensive testing was conducted throughout the 
reprogramming process. After all the necessary modifications, 
LetterTALK+ was given a final in-house review and prepared for 
production as a separate software program as well as a component 
of TALK II. Both 3 1/2 inch and 5 1/4 inch master disks were 
produced. The LetterTALK+ program sold out immediately and a 
larger second run was started right away. 

The computer parts collection was reviewed in light of 
currently available technology. In addition to the components 
already in the computer parts collection, it was decided to 
update the collection by including a sample of a compact disk, a 



79 

3 1/2 inch disk, and a hard disk for a hard drive (if the hard 
disk does not add significantly to the cost of the kit) . 

Work during FY 1994 . "Extension Activities" for the kit 
were written and edited. The teacher manual for the TALK II was 
revised, edited, and finalized. All necessary revision were 
completed and the total kit was given a final in-house review. 
Large print camera-ready masters of the manuals were produced and 
the manuals were prepared for recording. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The Talking Literacy Kit for 
Apple II Computers will be produced and made available. 



80 

Textalker-gs (continuing) 

Purpose: To develop an Apple IIGS specific version of 

Textalker which gives the visually impaired user 
access to text-based off-the-shelf software 

Project staff: Rob Meredith, Programmer 

Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 

Background . Although Textalker works perfectly on an Apple 
IIGS computer, it does not take advantage of advanced system 
resources available on that machine. In 1989, it was decided 
that APH would develop a highly modified version of Textalker 
called Textalker-gs for use only on the Apple IIGS. The first 
version of Textalker-gs was released in February of 1990. Before 
Textalker-gs, most programs had to be written specifically for 
speech, or had to be highly modified to obtain speech output. 
With the power of the Apple IIGS, it is possible to make many 
off-the-shelf programs work with speech using Textalker-gs. 

Work during FY 1994 . Several new features were added to 
Textalker-gs. Two of the more important features added were a 
punctuation editor and an auto-read command. The punctuation 
editor allows the user to define and use up to eight different 
punctuation tables. With the new punctuation tables, the user 
can control exactly which punctuation characters are spoken and 
which ones are not. A custom punctuation table may be selected 
with a simple command when desired, most commonly when switching 
between applications. 

The auto-read command allows automatic reading in word 
processors not specifically designed for speech. With this 
command, a user can read through a whole document in AppleWorks, 
AppleWriter, or almost any other text-based word processor, 
without having to continuously press the Down Arrow Key. Reading 
can be done by lines or sentences. 

Small improvements to the text-to-speech rules were also 
implemented. The program is extremely stable, and packed with 
more power than ever in anticipation of the next software 
upgrade. Textfiles to be included on the disk which outline 
changes to the program and manual were also written. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . It appears that while Textalker- 
gs is a very powerful program, it is becoming less needed. This 
is probably due to the shift from the Apple IIGS computer to 
newer, more powerful machines. APH does, however, intend to 
release one last version of Textalker-gs before discontinuing the 
project. 



81 
TEXT2000/2020 (complete) 

Purpose: To provide software to access textbooks in an 
electronic format 

Project staff: John Hedges, Project Director 

Rob Meredith, Programmer 
Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 

Background . With the passage of the Americans with 
Disabilities Act and legislation in several states requiring 
publishers to make electronic data files of textbooks adopted by 
that state available, APH expects a dramatic increase in the 
number of textbooks accessible to blind students. While it would 
be impossible to braille all but the most needed titles, with new 
electronic braille production, both electronic and braille 
editions can be produced. More books in electronic format will 
require an adequate access program for the student to use with a 
computer and speech synthesizer, large print, or refreshable 
braille output. 

APH examined several programs used for accessing 
electronically stored text in an effort to find one that would 
provide ease of use and flexibility with a variety of access 
equipment and still let the student retain the pagination of the 
printed book. A program called The Reader Project was identified 
as a tool that met many of these requirements. The Reader 
Project was tested and APH entered into an agreement with the 
program's manufacturer for use of the program with some 
modifications for APH's specific needs. This program is called 
TEXT2000. 

The Microcomputer Group field tested TEXT2000 at several 
locations including the Kentucky School for the Blind, the 
Indiana School for the Blind, and the Louisiana School for the 
Blind to determine its usefulness. The field testers found both 
very positive responses and some concerns. One concern came when 
the field testers realized that some of the students were not 
familiar with their access tools. Several students expressed the 
need for a search capability, and others were concerned with the 
lack of notification when the program tried to run on a machine 
with insufficient RAM. 

The staff realized that TEXT2000 was not ideal for all 
requirements, but the program would serve nicely until something 
that more closely matched APH's specific requirements could be 
identified or developed. One requirement of particular interest, 
not supported by TEXT2000, is the ability to run on Apple II and 
Macintosh as well as IBM and compatible machines. Other 
requirements include bookmark capabilities, support for writing 
notes associated with the text, searching, the ability to import 
text from standard publisher files, and the ability to display 



82 

graphics. While TEXT2000 did not fulfill all these requirements, 
it proved an effective tool initially for delivering textbooks 
while the staff gathered more information. 

Limited data collection from users of TEXT2000 occurred. 
The Information Systems group contracted for limited 
modifications to TEXT2000 to meet usability and production 
requirements. These enhancements included: pagination by page 
number, group document sections increased to 20, next screen 
page-down key added for speech synthesizer compatibility, and a 
basic single word text search capability through the whole 
textbook. These changes helped TEXT2000 meet some of the basic 
functionality required by the consumers. 

The Microcomputer Group began coding an alternative delivery 
system for electronic text that would provide the capabilities of 
TEXT2000 with some additional functions. This project was called 
TEXT2020. Some of the features that prompted the need for a 
whole new product included the ability to read files from nearly 
any origin, as opposed to only those files created especially for 
TEXT2000. APH felt that TEXT2020 could become the chosen 
delivery method for electronic text in a variety of formats, 
including books from Recording for the Blind, and manuals that 
already exist from shareware authors. 

A period of review and evaluation took place. It was 
determined through review of existing field equipment and 
hardware requirements that the goal for an electronic text 
program on Apple computers was not feasible using current 
hardware and software resources. Also, the goal for Macintosh 
support was determined to be a low priority with current 
resources . 

The existing rudimentary coding for the new reading program 
was reviewed and requirements for the project were outlined by 
the Microcomputer Group. These requirements were more extensive 
than the existing TEXT2000 capabilities. These features included 
a student specific configuration file, multiple books open at 
once, tracking of last 20 open books, accessing non-APH books and 
documents, student selectable indexing, and Windows migratable 
coding for use on Windows and Macintosh platforms later. 
Existing software tools and emerging document tools and software 
were reviewed. It was found that a majority of new software was 
Windows oriented and provided multimedia and scalable font 
support in a graphical environment for direct large print 
capabilities. The requirement for speech and braille access has 
not been met by these graphical tools at this time. However, 
speech access tools are being actively developed by other 
vendors . 

Coding for a new windowing approach began on TEXT2020. The 
previous work was completely rewritten to enhance modularity and 



83 

integration of text windows. The menu system was designed to 
access an external file for multilanguage support. Each menu is 
on a single line, with high light /arrow key and Enter or option 
letter access. Coding and testing for menu processing was 
completed. The specification for multiple books and specific 
user preferences were designed and coded. A master and multiple 
bookshelf book/document list tracking system were designed and 
coded. The ability to access a file list was coded and tested. 
The multiple file access feature was narrowed down to E-text 
ASCII files, WordPerfect files, and publisher protected files. 
These were deemed the most important for an initial version, with 
others, such as SGML, potential additions later. The ability to 
access other file formats, such as Recording for the Blind books, 
depended on future developments at Recording for the Blind. A 
WordPerfect TookKit was acquired to provide specifications for 
reading WordPerfect documents. Routines have been coded and 
tested for incorporation into TEXT2020. 

Work during FY 1994 . The TEXT2000/2020 project underwent 
major review during the first half of FY 1994. The project goals 
were reviewed and assessed against the current software available 
in the market. A major factor was that the TEXT2 000 software 
used by APH had been enhanced through the use of a contract 
programmer under the direction of the Information Systems 
Department. In light of the enhancements and with no desire to 
duplicate efforts, it was decided to suspend programming on a new 
electronic text access program for Microsoft DOS and compatible 
operating systems. The other major finding in the review was the 
identification of growing numbers of products available for 
information access that are speech and large print adapted for 
friendly configuration and use by blind individuals. 

A Micro Materials Update article was prepared to distribute 
the review findings and highlight software that can be used in 
conjunction with adaptive technology to access electronic text 
documents. The article was published in the Spring/Summer 1994 
issue of the Micro Materials Update . 

Work planned for FY 1995 . While the Microcomputer Group has 
no immediate work planned, included in the review of the market 
were new operating environments that are impacting the transition 
and education markets. The Microsoft Windows and related 
graphical user interface software platforms are presenting a 
growing challenge to visually impaired computer users, with the 
additional dependence on multimedia graphics and sound. These 
areas were identified as potential areas to address in any future 
electronic text software programming. 

During the 1994-95 school year, New Mexico will be using a 
number of TEXT2000 and other electronic textbooks. An evaluation 
will be made of the effectiveness and acceptance of this medium 
for educational purposes. 



84 

Typing Program for IBM (completed) 

Purpose: To provide students and teachers with appropriate 
software and documentation for use in teaching and 
reinforcing typing skills using IBM and compatible 
computers with speech output capabilities 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Codirector 

Rob Meredith, Project Codirector 
Benjamin Gurevich, Programmer 
Fred Otto, Project Assistant 
John Hedges, Project Assistant 

Background . As recommended by several Microcomputer 
Advisory Committees, the Kids Can! Tvper was adapted by the 
Microcomputer Group for speech access. The talking version, 
Talking Tvper . for use on Apple II computers, became available 
from APH in January 1991. 

Members of the Eighth Microcomputer Advisory Committee 
assigned a high priority to developing a typing program similar 
to Talking Tvper for use on IBM PCs and compatible computers. 
The Microcomputer Group examined several available titles to 
determine the actual need for the project. It was determined 
that a typing tutor is a kind of program that does not work well 
when speech is added to it. This meant the program needed to be 
developed internally. 

Work during FY 1994 . Program revisions were made based on 
the comments and suggestions from the field evaluators. These 
included some totally new additions such as a feature to "Learn 
the Keyboard" and "Help" menus available throughout the program. 
Numerous in-house reviews of the software using a variety of 
speech synthesizers and screen access programs were conducted as 
progress continued. Field testing at the Kentucky School for the 
Blind and the Texas School for the Blind continued. A list of 
approximately 200 changes was compiled based on in-house reviews. 
The talking typing program for IBM and compatible computers was 
named PC Typer . Once the software was finalized, the Teacher's 
Manual was rewritten, edited, revised, and a large print camera- 
ready master was produced. The Teacher's Manual was also marked 
up for use by the studio for recording purposes. A final in- 
house review of the total product was conducted. 

Decisions were made regarding the formats in which PC Tvper 
would initially be made available. It was decided to offer PC 
Typer as a complete set which would include the Teacher Disk on 3 
1/2 inch and 5 1/4 inch disks, the Student Disk on 3 1/2 inch and 
5 1/4 inch disks, and the Teacher's Manual in large print, 
recorded on cassette tape at 15/16 ips, and as textfiles on each 
Teacher Disk. Since each student would need his or her own 
Student Disk, two lab packs would also be made available. Each 



85 

lab pack would contain five identical Student Disks of either 3 
1/2 inch or 5 1/4 inch disks. A license agreement was prepared, 
the master disks were produced, and the production document and 
software catalog cards were prepared for production purposes. 
The single user version of PC Typer was turned over to Technical 
Research for initial production. During FY 1994, PC Tvoer was 
made available in the three formats discussed above. 

Since APH often receives requests for a demo copy of a 
software product, it was decided to create and make available a 
free demo of the PC Typer program. The demo package includes 
both a 3 1/2" and a 5 1/4" disk. The demo reviews nearly all 
aspects of the Student Program. It gives potential users of PC 
Tv per an idea of the features of the program, as well as an 
opportunity to try the software with their particular adaptive 
technology. The demo was produced and distributed at 11 of the 
1994 summer conferences. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Once a network is setup in the 
Department of Educational and Technical Research, the 
Microcomputer Group will pursue development of its first 
networkable software selection. PC Typer NV [network version] 
will be tested in-house on a variety of network arrangements, in 
local schools if necessary, and will also be evaluated by field 
reviewers. After necessary modifications, master disks and 
camera-ready documentation will be prepared, and PC Tvoer NV will 
be turned over to Technical Research for production. 



86 



87 



Other Activities 






88 



89 

Elementary Math (new) 

Purpose: To develop materials to aid braille users in 
developing understanding of and competence in 
elementary mathematics 

Project staff: Eleanor Pester, Project Director 

Carol Roderick, Project Assistant 
Debbie Willis, Project Consultant 

Background ♦ Through the years, the math achievement of 
students who use braille has consistently been behind that of 
their normally sighted peers. In recent years, very little 
research has been done to improve this situation. Teachers of 
students who are blind, however, have continuously requested 
special braille curricular materials for math similar to those in 
the Patterns program developed at APH to teach braille reading. 
With dramatic increases in the number of blind students 
mainstreamed and using the itinerant special education teacher 
model, the math priority determined as part of GOALS 2000, and 
new standards recently adopted by the National Council of 
Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) for the teaching of math, it seemed 
appropriate to focus once again on math materials for braille 
users. 

Work during FY 1994 . To update ourselves on current methods 
being used to teach math, Debbie Willis and Eleanor Pester 
attended the NCTM's 72nd Annual Meeting held in Indianapolis from 
April 13-16, 1994. They looked at exhibits of the latest 
textbooks, manipulatives, and software being offered, went to 
outstanding presentations, and met many math teachers. 

In an effort to identify the specific needs of students who 
are visually impaired in the areas of math, science, and social 
studies, a questionnaire was developed and sent to all members of 
the elementary and itinerant teachers divisions of the 
Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and 
Visually Impaired. Data from this survey have been recorded and 
analyzed and a list of comments and suggestions compiled. This 
information will be used to make further plans for the math 
materials to be developed. 

An advisory committee of outstanding teachers, 
administrators, and teacher trainers, both blind and sighted and 
with experience teaching normally sighted individuals and 
visually impaired individuals in various special education 
models, was carefully chosen from across the country for this 
project. This committee held its first meeting at APH on 
September 1-2, 1994, to focus on the needs of young braille users 
in elementary math, to set priorities for the development of 
materials, and to determine specifications for the materials to 
be developed initially. 



90 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Work will begin on the materials 
decided upon by the committee as being priorities. Prototypes 
will be developed and plans will be made for field testing. 



91 

Guidelines for Design of Tactile Graphics (completed) 

Purpose: To develop a set of guidelines to be used by APH 

and others to provide information on how to design 
and create tactile graphics that will be tactually 
legible 

Project staff: June E. Morris, Project Director 

Hilda Caton, APH staff participant 

Emerson Foulke, Consultant 

Fred Gissoni, APH staff participant 

Mary Nelle McLennan, APH staff participant 

Eleanor Pester, APH staff participant 

Background. During the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, APH 
conducted an extensive program of research into tactile symbology 
and design, psychophysical parameters of tactual perception 
related to identifying tactile symbology, and methods for 
"reading" tactile graphics. Results of this research are 
reflected in APH's products Tactile Graphics Kit (for which 
empirical data assure the tactile symbols made with the kit's 
tools are tactually discriminable) and Tangible Graphs (a program 
designed and found effective in teaching students tactile graph 
reading techniques) as well as in APH's Plate Embossing Apparatus 
for Raised Line Drawings equipment (used to tool braille plates 
from which tactile graphics are embossed in paper and for which 
empirical data have established the tactual discriminability of 
the resulting symbology) . With the current renewed interest in 
using tactile graphics to support the education of blind students 
and the advent of new technologies for producing tactile 
graphics, the need to provide and share information critical to 
the design of tactile graphics became apparent. The only place 
where such design information could be found in written form was 
in the Tactile Graphics Guidebook that accompanies APH's Tactile 
Graphics Kit. 

A meeting was held on April 12 and 13, 1993, at APH with the 
primary person in the tactile graphics area of all major agencies 
in North America with an interest in tactile graphics attending. 
A number of people from APH with information about and interest 
in tactile design also participated. Samples of graphics 
provided by APH and the consultants were critiqued and this 
information was used in the development of the guidelines. The 
result of the meeting was an initial draft of the Guidelines for 
Design of Tactile Graphics. The draft was subsequently 
distributed to all participants to give them an opportunity to 
comment . 

Work during FY 1994 . Comments received from the 
participants in this project were reviewed by project staff and a 
final document drafted. The guidelines were presented in the 
following sections: General, Design, Symbols, Lead Lines, 



92 

Labels, Legends, Indicators and Scale, and Preliminary 
Information. Obviously, not all sections would apply to all 
tactile graphics. The guidelines were distributed at APH's 
October 1993 Annual Meeting and are available upon request. 



93 

Museum Math Project (new) 

Purpose: To produce a software program containing 

selections from The Mental Arithmetic of Warren 
Colburn for use in APH's museum 

Project staff: Debbie Willis, Project Codirector 

Rob Meredith, Project Codirector 
Ben Gurevich, Programmer 
Carol Tobe, Project Consultant 

Background . The museum math project is a modern day 
representation of the 1873 book, The Mental Arithmetic of Warren 
Colburn . published in 1874 by APH. The book was originally 
printed using Boston Line Type. 

The software program was to contain at least 30 selections 
from the work and run on an IBM or compatible computer. The 
questions were to be presented randomly and with output to a 
color monitor as well as through a speech synthesizer. The 
program will be used only in the APH museum as an exhibit. The 
Quest Authoring System was selected to develop the program. This 
is the first project undertaken by the Microcomputer Group using 
Quest . 

Work during FY 1994 . Selections from the book were put into 
computer files; representative questions from the book were 
grouped, analyzed, and selected;, and the special program was 
created. In-house evaluations of the program were conducted and 
modifications were made as needed. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The project was completed in FY 
1994, so any work during FY 1995 will include minor adjustments, 
bug fixes, and changes based on museum visitors' comments or 
suggestions. 



94 

Nomad Graphic Packages (new) 

Purpose: To design for presentation via the Nomad sets of 
tactile graphics with audio enhancement to 
supplement educational programs 

Project staff: Fred Otto, Project Coordinator 

Bennett Curry, Director of Marketing 

Background . APH began selling Nomad by APH in April 1993. 
Educational materials for use with it can be created by school 
personnel using the device to meet their specific instructional 
objectives or more generic materials can be provided by 
manufacturing firms and others. APH has created and distributed 
maps of the states and regions of the United States which include 
generic audio information (which can be customized or enhanced by 
users) . The company would like to enlarge its array of graphic 
packages to meet the needs of educators and to support the Nomad 
product. Graphic information taken from books can only be used 
with copyright permission and must be so labeled. Consequently, 
APH is looking to creating a number of graphic packages of its 
own. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . Purchasers of Nomads by APH will 
be surveyed to learn how and for what purposes they are using the 
device and to learn the types of educational materials they would 
like to have to use with it. This information will provide 
direction for APH's development of graphic packages. 

Previously acquired information has indicated that a major 
use of the Nomad will be for & M instruction. Although tactile 
and audio information about specific "routes" will have to be 
provided by the instructor, APH has contacted Billie Bentzen of 
Boston College regarding development of an introductory & M 
program that would be presented using the Nomad. Initial plans 
are that this program will be developed and evaluated during FY 
1995. 



95 

Tactile Graphics Starter Kit (new) 

Purpose: To develop an inexpensive kit of materials and 
design information that could be used by a 
person serving blind students/ clients to make 
simple tactile graphics that would incorporate 
consumable materials easily replaced commercially 

Project staff: Fred Otto, Project Codirector 

Tom Poppe, Project Codirector 

Background . Many blind or visually impaired students are 
being taught in public schools where the graphic materials used 
with sighted students cannot easily be prepared in tactile form. 
Most schools do not have the tools, facilities, or personnel with 
necessary expertise to make aluminum masters and thermoform 
copies of graphics. Likewise, rehabilitation centers, families, 
and businesses may have need for an occasional tactile graphic 
but not a full-scale production system. The availability of the 
Nomad by APH also increases the potential need for tactile 
graphics. Thus, a set of affordable materials which a novice 
could use to make raised graphics would be of great value. Such 
a kit should be inexpensive, should include easily replaceable 
materials, and should give basic guidelines for proper graphic 
design. 

Work durincr FY 1994 . Possible components of the kit were 
named by an in-house committee. A template for making braille 
dots with craft ink was created but then abandoned after an in- 
house tryout. 

Information was taken from the Tactile Graphics Guidebook 
and from a 1993 tactile graphics expert committee and condensed 
into a booklet. The booklet describes use of the kit materials 
and rules of good design and provides drawings to practice 
tracing with craft ink. Examples of good and bad graphics were 
made up from the kit materials and photographed for use as 
illustrations . 

Other items in the kit included bottles of craft ink in 
different colors; a card with samples of lines and dots that can 
be made with the craft ink; sheets of canvas, buckram, and 
embossed paper for use as areal patterns; sheets with point 
symbols to cut out and place on graphics; a glue stick; a slate 
and stylus for making braille labels; and a Grade 2 braille 
reference chart. 

The proposed kit was field tested with four vision teachers 
in the Jefferson County system and with two & M instructors 
from the Kentucky Department for the Blind, as well as reviewed 
by the in-house committee. Input from these sources helped 
determine the colors of ink to be included in the final product, 



96 

the amount of each type of material to provide, and the final 
contents of the instruction booklet. 

The kit has been turned over to Production. Project staff 
will work with Technical Research to obtain materials and to 
produce the sample cards by machine cheaply to keep the final 
price below $25. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . The initial goal is completed. 
Project staff will monitor sales and solicit comments from buyers 
to determine if the product needs further work. 



97 

Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning Media (completed) 

Purpose: To expand the assessment section (Section II) of 
the document entitled Print and Braille Literacy: 
Selecting Appropriate Learning Media which was 
developed at APH by a group of experts in the ares 
of print and braille literacy 

Project staff: Hilda Caton, Project Director 

Eleanor Pester, Project Codirector 
Beth Gordon, Project Assistant 
Carol Roderick, Project Assistant 
Betty Modaressi, Editor 

Background. On June 8-9, 1990, a committee of experts in 
the field of education of children who are visually impaired met 
at APH to develop a set of guidelines to assist teachers of 
visually impaired students in selecting the appropriate learning 
media/medium for their students. The resulting document is 
entitled Print and Braille Literacy: Selecting Appropriate 
Learning Media and is published by APH. This document does not 
contain specific, detailed assessment procedures. Instead, it 
contains general guidelines to assist teachers and other 
professionals in making decisions about learning media. Members 
of the committee who developed the guidelines felt that it was 
necessary to expand them and to develop specific assessment 
procedures for determining the appropriate learning media/medium 
for individual students. 

A new committee was formed to accomplish this purpose and it 
met at APH in August of 1991. The Committee outlined an expanded 
version of Section II of Print and Braille Literacy to include 
specific assessment procedures and instruments for each part of 
that section. Members of the planning committee were assigned to 
write these sections. Some of the sections were drafted and 
turned in . 

Work during FY 1994 . Committee members who had not 
completed their assignments were contacted. Additional experts 
were asked for written contributions. By the end of September 
1993 all materials had been received. Project staff contributed 
additional information. Specific assessment procedures and 
instruments for selecting the appropriate learning media were 
explained. 

The first draft was completed and presented to APH's 
Educational Research and Development Committee during Annual 
Meeting. This draft was revised and edited by the project 
director. In February of 1994 the second draft was reviewed by a 
consultant and additional revisions were made based on these 
recommendations. The document was ready for production in March 
of 1994. It consists of three parts, a total of five sections, 



98 

appendices, a glossary of eye terms, and references and other 
sources of information. The print version became available in 
July of 1994. The large type and braille versions became 
available in August of 1994. TOOLS for Selecting Appropriate 
Learning Media is expected to be a companion to Print and Braille 
Literacy; Selecting Appropriate Learning Media . 



99 

Transition— ages 16-21 (continuing) 

Purpose: To identify, and subsequently provide, specific 
materials needed to assist students who have 
visual impairments in making the transition from 
school to the world of work or to higher education 

Project staff: Sheri Moore, Research Scientist 

Debbie Johnson, Research Assistant 
others to be identified 

Background . The need for materials to support transition 
programs for blind and multihandicapped students was prioritized 
by APH Ex Officio Trustees for FY 1993. The low- and under- 
employment statistics for persons with visual and additional 
impairments (Combs, 1986; McGinty, 1985; Simpson, 1985) , make 
clear the need for better education and training of workers, and 
of employers who may not understand the validity of hiring 
workers with significant disabilities. This, along with the 
educational reforms mandated by the legislation to better educate 
and evaluate our future work force, make the environment ripe for 
introducing materials that assist educators, trainers, and 
students in their efforts to achieve not only employability among 
people with visual impairment, but productive, satisfying 
employment. 

Several approaches have been taken in increasing the skills 
of blind and multihandicapped students' job-preparedness, 
including intensive weekend or summer experiences in job 
education and training, an emphasis on real-life work experiences 
in areas of career exploration and sampling, and part-time 
volunteer and paid jobs for students during the school year, with 
support and training from personnel in Orientation and Mobility, 
Social-Skills/Counseling, and related areas. 

Education is changing for all students, with a greater 
emphasis on career-oriented learning and assessment. It will be 
of value to students and their educators to have direction, in 
the form of materials, during this process of change. 

Clearly, the learning required for successful employment 
begins at an early age (Halpern, 1992; McBroom, 1993). Because 
of this, transition training is starting even earlier in the 
child's developmental sequence than the mandated age of 16 years. 

Work during FY 1994 . Examination of the literature and 
best-practice sites was conducted with the following results: 

1. Karen Wolffe and Sharon Sacks have been identified as 
prominent in this area of study. APH has developed 
relationships with both, and may collaborate with one 
or both on a transition project. 



100 

2. Other professional groups and individuals have been 
identified as possible collaborators/reviewers in 
transition product development. 

3. Site visits have been made to transition programs in 
several states, including Arizona, California, Oregon, 
and Texas. People, practices, and materials have been 
noted at each of these sites. 

4. A Transition-to-work consultation with Dr. Wolffe 
resulted in several ideas for materials that would be 
useful in the field. These ideas were discussed with 
transition personnel at a national seminar on Summer 
Work/Transition (July, 1994) , which drew professionals 
and administrators from across the country. 

Work planned for FY 1995 . A sound platform of field study 
and research has been established at APH in the area of 
Transition. During this fiscal year, project staff, funding, and 
goals will be formalized. Several projects are under 
consideration and are listed in order of most likely priority for 
development: 

Transition Portfolio Kit . A self-contained record-keeping 
system that structures transition-related activities and 
resources important to initiate at various stages of the 
student's development. 

Personal Futures Planning Manual . A model for cradle-to- 
grave assessment and a skills/activity checklist. 

An Ecological Assessment Tool for determining functional 
capabilities needed/ acquired for the world of work. 

After finalizing the decisions as to specific project 
description, the goal is to have a document ready for field 
testing by the end of FY 1995. 



101 



Technical Research Division 



102 



103 

Technical Research Division 

Purpose: To develop products involving technology and to 
introduce other new products for production 

Division staff: Bob Phelps, Manager 

James Robinson, Manufacturing Specialist 
Frank Hayden, Manufacturing Specialist 
Darlene Donhoff, Technical/Clerical 
Assistant 



Work during FY 1994 . 

AC /DC Rechargeable 4 -Track Cassette Tape 
Recorder /Player — Redesign . (readdressing) After an 
investigation of complaints on serious "wow and 
flutter" of many machines, a decision was made to stop 
all sales of the AC/DC Rechargeable 4-Track Cassette 
Tape Recorder /Player. Technical Research personnel and 
in-house electronic technicians consulted with 
electronic firms to determine the cause of wow and 
flutter in the new machines. Once the cause was 
determined and a decision was made regarding the best 
method of correcting all new units, Technical Research 
joined other APH personnel in locating a company to 
make the repairs to the machines. APH ordered the 
necessary parts and sent them along with the new units 
still in stock for Radio Sound to make the repairs. A 
recall letter was drafted and will be sent to all 
purchasers of new recorders. The machines will be 
repaired and returned by APH personnel. 

Big Cell , (new product) Technical Research personnel worked 
with APH's Model Maker to locate a vendor for manufacturing 
the Big Cell. Specifications were drafted and sent to 
vendors for price quotes. A quote from Grish Plastics was 
approved. Work was begun to have molds developed for sample 
parts to be made and sent to APH for approval. Raw material 
part numbers were set up in both computer systems and a 
preliminary bill of materials was developed. 

Big Picture , (new product) Technical Research was given 
this new device to have manufactured. The low vision aid 
was originally named MagnaSight, but since products with 
very similar names already existed on the market, a new name 
was selected: Big Picture. After examining the product for 
the best way to produce it, a vendor was located to 
manufacture the product for APH. Radio Sound was selected 
to build 1,000 units. APH initially received 200 units in 
late summer; the remaining 800 units to be delivered 10 to 
12 weeks later. Part numbers and a bill of materials were 



104 



set up and entered into both computer systems. Seven 
prototype units were built by Technical Research personnel 
in order to have units to show at various conferences. 
These have been loaned out as requested. Distribution of 
the product was delayed pending fee approval. 

Braille & Large Type Maps: U.S and its Regions , 
(readdressing) The braille plates used for the maps were 
quite worn and a number of revisions were needed. Technical 
Research staff worked with members of Educational Research 
on updating the information on both the braille and large 
type maps. All maps were completely redrawn by Technical 
Research, then approved by Educational Research and other 
APH personnel. The revised maps were given new catalog 
numbers and new numbers for individual parts were also 
assigned. These were entered into both computer systems. 
The drawings were given to the Braille and Large Type 
Departments to make master plates. The updated maps were 
produced and put into stock. 

Braille 'n Speak Classic , (new product) This new product 
was turned over to Technical Research for getting into 
production. Part numbers were set up in both computer 
systems and orders for the parts were placed. Colors for the 
case and the keys were selected and approved. Educational 
and Advisory Services, with assistance from the 
Microcomputer Group in Educational Research, worked with the 
vendor to write a manual for the unit and get it produced in 
accessible media. Technical Research set up a bill of 
materials for this product as well as for items which will 
be sold as accessories. The vendor of the unit agreed to do 
final packaging. This allows APH to receive the finished 
product directly into stock. 

G.E. Patch Cord Kit , (continuing) This project is on 
hold with intentions to look into it at a future date. 

The Globe , (readdressing) Technical Research and Model Shop 
personnel looked into redesigning APH's 12-inch geophysical 
globe in such a way that the need to do time-consuming hand 
painting would be eliminated. A replacement globe was 
designed and approved. The approved replacement is a 
printed globe, purchased assembled from Cram Map Company. 
APH will add clear thermoformed overlays and a clear strip 
for the equator. A new name and catalog number were 
assigned the completely redesigned tactile globe. New 
numbers were entered into both computer systems and a bill 
of materials was structured to reflect the changes. 
Materials were ordered and turned over to the Educational 
Aids warehouse in order for an initial production run to be 
made. Technical Research staff monitored the prototype run. 
After approving the prototypes, 100 globes were completed, 



105 

put into stock, and priced at $65.00. This is a price 
reduction of about 67% from the cost of the previous 
geophysical globe. 

Jot-A-Dot . (new product) Technical Research was initially 
involved in determining the feasibility of this product 
concept. A company was found that was interested in working 
with APH on it. After several samples were received, none 
of which were satisfactory, the project was returned to its 
initiator with design specifications it would have to meet 
for further consideration by APH. They began looking for a 
vendor who could make a unit meeting the required 
specifications . 

LetterTALK+ (completed) Technical Research was given this 
software program to coordinate the processes and make the 
preparations necessary to introduce it into production. 
Part numbers and a bill of materials were assigned and 
entered into both computer systems. Materials needed to 
produce this kit were ordered and turned over to the 
department responsible for making and packaging the product. 
It was completed and put into stock. 

Longhand Writing Kit , (readdressing)- The Model Maker, 
working with Technical Research, conceptualized a redesign 
of the screen writing board. It was changed from the screen 
wire attached to binderboard to a clear polycarbonate 
thermoformed wire screened surface. The redesign was 
approved and it was decided the revised board would be a 
good item to make available for small children to use as a 
scribble board. Since the manual referred to the original 
board in descriptive terms, it was necessary to revise it. 
Revisions were made to the manual and part numbers were set 
up for the new braille and print versions of it. Materials 
were ordered to make the redesigned board. A prototype run 
is planned. 

Nomad by APH . (continuing) Technical Research personnel 
worked with the Educational Aids Department to place orders 
for the parts needed to do a second run of this product. 
Several changes were made to purchased parts in order to 
make it easier to assemble the Nomad. Technical Research 
also assisted in training additional employees on assembly 
procedures for the Nomad. 

Nomad Gold , (new product) Technical Research began working 
on changes to the Nomad suggested by Marketing. Samples of 
different types of black plastics were ordered for testing 
purposes, as well as making some design changes on molds 
used to form the case. Many methods were tried in order to 
determine the best way to put the Nomad Gold name on the top 
of the case. Materials needed to make the Nomad Gold units 



106 



were ordered and turned over to manufacturing. Written 
documentation on assembly procedures was completed and 
turned over to the Educational Aids Department. 

Nomad Graphics , (completed) When the Graphics Department 
was started September 23, 1993, Technical Research staff 
turned over all graphics related information to the new 
department. Graphics Department personnel developed 
guidelines for the design and production of graphics and 
took on the responsibility of making certain that the 
quality and features of graphics produced adhered to the 
guidelines. Technical Research staff assisted the new 
department at various times and continues to do so as the 
need arises. 

On the Way to Literacy: Early Experiences for Visually 
Impaired Children , (completed) Several meetings were 
held with Technical Research staff and other 
departments to devise alternate production methods of 
making the covers that would reduce the time and cost 
of making them. Technical Research staff came up with 
the idea to silkscreen the label directly onto the 
cover and then vacuumform it. Sample materials were 
ordered and received. Work was done on revising the 
mold for thermoforming, and new artwork was created in 
order to make the silkscreens needed to screen the 
cover. For a test run, the staff selected the most 
difficult book cover to silkscreen. This was completed 
and proved to be successful. The Large Type Department 
also looked into alternate ways to cover the books. It 
was decided to have Midland make embossed binders to 
use. The binders were selected and ordered. Technical 
Research staff provided tremendous assistance in having 
the tactile pages made for the next production run on 
these books. 

On the Way to Literacy II . (new product) These three new 
tactile storybooks were turned over to the Technical 
Research Department in March. Binders were selected for the 
books, orders placed and received. Vendors were found to 
make the sewn items for the books and requisitions were 
written to have the work done. Work orders were opened for 
the print and braille portions of all three books and 
completed. Dies needed for some of the tactile pages were 
ordered and received. All additional materials needed to 
make the three books were ordered and received. Once the 
sewn items are in-house, the final production step of 
collating braille/print pages with the tactile pages and 
inserting them into binders will be completed. 



107 

Painted Products , (continuing) Using the firmplan, kits 
were monitored to check for any painted parts which could be 
purchased already painted, ready to use. 

Parts Orders , (continuing) Parts Orders were given to the 
Technical Research staff in May. A spreadsheet listing all 
parts requested and their part numbers was developed. Bin 
numbers were set up and parts were assigned to them. What 
materials were available to fill Parts Orders were 
determined. Materials were transferred from the Educational 
Aids Warehouse to Technical Research in order to fill 
orders. Technical Research staff filled approximately 80% 
of the Parts Orders, which included existing ones and those 
that continued to come in. Technical Research staff 
established a recommended lists of parts that should be 
stocked and set up procedures for future orders. 

PC Typer . (completed) This was a new software program that 
was turned over to Technical Research. One set of materials 
included the full program. Two sets of lab packs were also 
produced. Each lab pack consists of five 3.5 inch or 5.25 
inch IBM compatible disks per pack. Part numbers were set 
up and entered into the computer system. Materials were 
ordered and work orders were opened for production and 
packaging of all components. The three versions of the 
product were completed, put into stock and priced. Demo 
disks in 3.5 inch and 5.25 inch formats were also duplicated 
and packaged together one per set. These were sent to 
Educational and Advisory Services for storage and 
distribution . 

Peg Slate , (new product) Technical Research worked with the 
Model Maker to locate a vendor to manufacture this product. 
Grish Plastics was selected to manufacture the slate. A 
work order was issued to get the molds made that were 
necessary for producing this product. Samples were sent to 
APH which did not completely meet with approval. Changes 
were suggested and made. An acceptable sample was approved 
and an order for 2,000 units was placed. Since this item is 
to be sold individually as well as with the Braille Writing 
Kit, it was recommended that brief directions on how to use 
it be included when sold by itself. Educational Research 
personnel completed the directions and a work order was 
opened to have the directions produced in print and braille. 
A mailing tube was selected for packaging. The vendor 
agreed to do final packaging of the product, thereby 
allowing APH to receive it as a finished product. Print and 
braille directions were sent to them to package with the 
slate. The requisition to have Grish Plastics do the final 
packaging was opened and the finished product is close to 
being completed. 



108 



Prefixes . (completed) After receiving this new software 
package, Technical Research staff designed artwork for five 
raised line drawings which are included with the program. 
Different methods and materials were discussed for use on 
the drawings. A decision was made to silkscreen the 
drawings on a heavy type of paper. Part numbers and a bill 
of materials were set up and entered into the computer 
system. Work orders were opened and completed on the 
individual parts. This product was completed, placed in 
stock, and priced. 

Portable Light Tablet , (new product) Technical Research 
staff was involved with the Model Maker in designing a 
portable Light Box. This included designing the circuit 
board, the case, and the fixtures needed to build it. 
Vendors for the various components were located. Sample 
parts and materials were ordered and received, and the staff 
built several prototype units. The prototype units were 
sent out for field test evaluation. After the field testing 
is completed and the evaluations are compiled, work will 
begin on necessary changes. The best way to produce the 
Light Tablets will be determined. 

Reclaiming Records , (completed) APH's Museum Director 
requested that the Technical Research staff reclaim some 
very old records for use in the museum as an Audio Exhibit. 
There were two recordings requested; one was the June 1947 
Readers Digest and the second was a December 1958 Newsweek . 
Technical Research cleaned up and processed the original 
hard records. The next step was doing the conversion into 
digital audio files for IC chip storage and replay. The 
process was completed and the end product was given to Carol 
Tobe as requested. 

Recognizing Landforms . (completed) Technical Research 
staff revised the production procedures for the 
landforms in order to reduce manufacturing time. The 
greatest amount of time had previously been spent hand- 
painting the individual maps. New artwork was 
designed. Silkscreens were made in order to screen the 
maps instead of hand painting them. This not only 
greatly reduced production time, but also lowered the 
cost. The cost of silkscreening cut almost 95% off the 
previous cost of handpainting. The plastic was 
silkscreened first and then vacuumf ormed . This 
resulted in a vast improvement in quality and approval 
was given to make the necessary changes in production 
documentation. Technical Research staff was available 
to help Manufacturing on the first production run of 
the maps. 



109 

Revised Parts Lists , (continuing) Parts lists were 
revised as each kit came up for production. New 
products have their parts lists set up according to the 
currently agreed upon procedures. 

Screen Fax , (proposed product) Screen Fax is a method of 
making inexpensive screens for use in the silk-screen 
process. APH purchased one for experimentation and 
subsequent use and seriously considered carrying the product 
as a service to customers who might use it in producing 
their own tactile and other graphics. Technical Research 
staff looked at possible materials to include with the 
Screen Fax unit and determined those required. A review of 
the inks and chemicals required indicated hazardous 
materials were involved. (Technical Research developed a 
special ink which APH uses for its own tactile graphics made 
by this process.) As Technical Research continued to 
evaluate this product, the need to develop guidelines 
regarding which settings worked best with different medias 
became apparent. These guidelines were established and 
written by Technical Research and provided to APH's Graphics 
Department. A decision was made by APH's Management Team 
not to carry this product because of the problem with 
hazardous chemicals and the obvious requirement for product 
support that APH's is not staffed to handle. Rather , 
inquiries about the product will be referred to its 
commercial distributor along with information about sources 
for inks that can be used for silk screening that will yield 
a raised surface. 

Sensory Pad , (on hold) Due to higher priority 
projects, little work was done on the Sensory Pad. 
Work will continue as time allows for future 
development. 

Shipping Cartons , (on hold) No further progress was 
made on this during this period of time. 

Silkscreenina . (completed) The Technical Research 
staff worked with Betty Jean Reece in turning over the 
operation of silkscreening to APH's Educational Aids 
Department. Two more employees were also trained on 
the silkscreening process. Technical Research staff 
continued to provide support and assistance as needed. 

Speaqualizer . (readdressing) Technical Research and 
Educational Research have been working together on a ROM 
update for the Speaqualizer. When this is completed, 
Technical Research will look for a new vendor to manufacture 
the circuit boards since the company that was making them 
has gone out of business. 



110 



Tactile Graphics Starter Kit , (new product) Since APH 
continued to receive inquiries on how individuals could make 
their own graphics, a Tactile Graphics Starter Kit was 
formulated. Materials in this kit provide basic 
instructions and materials to use in making raised line 
drawings as well as suggestions on other materials that can 
be used. Part numbers for the materials to be included in 
the kit were assigned, vendors for the materials were found, 
and orders were placed. 

Talking Signs , (new product) This product was given to 
Technical Research to pursue. Staff members met with Ward 
Bond of Talking Signs to discuss manufacturing and 
distributing this product. After some delays on the part of 
Talking Signs, Technical Research received working 
prototypes of the transmitter and receiver and a list of 
parts for the circuit boards in both of them. Talking Signs 
still needs to provide APH with information on the 
calibrations of both circuit boards. Once this information 
is received, Technical Research staff will compile a bid 
package on the parts to send out for bid quotes. 

Variable Intensity Study Lamp , (completed) Technical 
Research staff worked with Dazor to have them make a 
lamp for APH that met the specifications required for ;•,•■ 
the one assembled in-house. A sample of Dazor' s lamp^ 
was sent to APH and was approved as a replacement. An 
initial order of the fully assembled lamps was placed 
and received. When sending these changes to customers, 
APH included a short survey card asking whether or not 
they liked the lamp. APH had some parts left from 
having made the lamps in-house. Technical Research 
contacted Dazor to see if they would make a supply of 
lamps from these spare parts. An agreement was reached 
and the parts were sent to Dazor. The lamps were made 
and APH received the shipment. All future lamps will 
come from Dazor already assembled and will go directly 
into stock . 



Ill 

Agencies Participating in Research 

In addition to the agencies named here, appreciation is also 
extended to the many other agencies which cooperated with APH * s 
research efforts by permitting members of their staffs to serve 
as consultants or respondents to requests for information. 

Allen Communications, Inc.; Salt Lake City, Utah 

Apple Computer, Inc.; Cupertino, California 

Blazie Engineering; Forest Hill, Maryland 

Blindness: Learning in New Dimensions (BLIND Inc.); Minneapolis, 

Minnesota 
California School for the Blind; Freemont, California 
Colorado Center for the Blind; Denver, Colorado 

Dallas Services for the Visually Impaired Children; Dallas, Texas 
E.F. Enterprises; Warrenville, South Carolina 
ENTECH; Louisville, Kentucky 

Foundation for the Junior Blind; Los Angeles, California 
Indiana Family and Social Services Administration, Division of 

Disability, Aging, and Rehabilitative Services, Blind and 

Visually Impaired Services; Indianapolis, Indiana 
International Braille and Technology Center, National Federation 

of the Blind; Baltimore, Maryland 
Jefferson County Public Schools; Louisville, Kentucky 
Kentucky Assistive Technology Service Network; Frankfort, 

Kentucky 
Kentucky Department for the Blind; Louisville, Kentucky 
Kentucky School for the Blind; Louisville, Kentucky 
Louisiana Center for the Blind; Ruston, Louisiana 
MicroTalk; Texarkana, Texas 
Mississippi State University, Research & Training: Blindness & 

Low Vision, (RRTC) ; Oktibbeha, Mississippi 
Missouri School for the Blind; St Louis, Missouri 
National Association to Promote the Use of Braille (NAPUB) ; 

Louisville, Kentucky 
National Federation of the Blind; Baltimore, Maryland 
National Federation of the Blind Research and Development 

Committee; Baltimore, Maryland 
Nebraska School for the Blind; Nebraska City, Nebraska 
New Mexico Commission for the Blind; Alamogordo, New Mexico 
New Mexico School for the Visually Handicapped; Alamogordo, New 

Mexico 
Oregon Commission for the Blind; Salem, Oregon 
Overbrook Education Center, Philadelphia Public Schools; 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Overbrook School for the Blind; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, Department of Special 

Education; Nashville, Tennessee 
Perkins School for the Blind; Watertown, Massachusetts 
Santaluces High School; Lantana, Florida 
Shawnee Mission Public Schools; Shawnee Mission, Kansas 



112 

Sun Sounds Document Conversion and Training; Tucson, Arizona 
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired; Austin, Texas 
Utah School for the Blind; Ogden, Utah 
VISIONS Program; New York, New York 

Visually Impaired Preschool Services; Louisville, Kentucky 
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction; Madison, Wisconsin 
Wisconsin School for the Visually Handicapped and Educational 
Services for the Visually Impaired; Janesville, Wisconsin 



113 

Consultants 

In addition to the consultants formally acknowledged in this 
section, appreciation is extended to the many individuals who 
have willingly given of their time and expertise in cooperating 
with the various research and development projects underway by 
responding to questionnaires, by answering less formal queries 
for information, and by working with research staff in countless 
ways such as: (a) identifying particularly talented teachers and 
other professionals to serve on committees and/ or as expert 
reviewers; (b) recommending programs, teachers, and students 
appropriate for field evaluation sites; and (c) facilitating 
field evaluation efforts. Only through the splendid and 
continuing support of professionals working in the field and the 
people they serve is APH able to maintain its highly effective 
research and development program. 

Braille Literacy: Training. Mentoring, and Technological 
Services Program for Blind Adults 

Program Consultants 

Mr. Stephen Benson, Former Rehabilitation Specialist, Veterans 
Administration, Chicago, Illinois 

Dr. Emerson Foulke, Consultant, The Braille Research Center, 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Mrs. Tami Dodd Jones, Itinerant Teacher of the Visually Impaired, 
Pocomoke City, Maryland 

Mrs. Patricia Maurer, Former Braille Instructor, National 
Federation of the Blind, Baltimore, Maryland 

Mr. Donald Morris, Former Vice President, Blind Industries and 
Services of Maryland, Emmitsburg, Maryland 

Mrs. Betty Niceley, President, National Association to Promote 
the Use of Braille (NAPUB) , Louisville, Kentucky 

Mrs. Deborah Prost, Teacher of Blind Children, Portsmouth Public 
Schools, Portsmouth, Virginia 

Mrs. Judith Sanders, Former Director of Educational Programs for 
the National Federation of the Blind, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Technological Consultants 

Mr. David Andrews, Director, International Braille and Technology 
Center for the Blind, National Federation of the Blind, 
Baltimore, Maryland 



114 

Mr. Curtis Chong, Chairman, Committee on Assistive Technology, 
National Federation of the Blind, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Dr. T. V. Cranmer, Director of Research and Development and 
Chairman of Research and Development Committee, National 
Federation of the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 

Mr. Michael Freeman, Member, Research and Development Committee, 
National Federation of the Blind, Vancouver, Washington 

Mr. Stephen Jacobson, Member, Committee on the Evaluation of 
Technology, National Federation of the Blind, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota 

Dr. Abraham Nemeth, Originator of the Nemeth Braille Code for 
Mathematics and Science, Southfield, Michigan 

Mr. Lloyd Rasmussen, Member, Committee on Research and 

Development, National Federation of the Blind, Kensington, 
Maryland 

Mr. James Willow, Member, Committee on Research and Development, 
National Federation of the Blind, Pleasanton, California 



Teacher Evaluators 

Mr. Tom Anderson, Braille Instructor, Colorado Center for the 
Blind, Denver, Colorado 

Ms. Jennifer Dunham, Braille Instructor, Blindness: Learning in 
New Dimensions (BLIND Inc.), Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Ms. Barbara Hudman, Braille Instructor, New Mexico Commission for 
the Blind, Alamogordo, New Mexico 

Mr. Jerry Whittle, Braille Instructor, Louisiana Center for the 
Blind, Ruston, Louisiana 



Mentors 
Mr. Tim Aune, Robbinsdale, Minnesota 
Mr. Don Banning, Harahan, Louisiana 
Mrs. Jewel Manning, Harahan, Louisiana 
Mr. Eddie Bell, Alamogordo, New Mexico 
Ms. Jacquilyn Billey, Roswell, New Mexico 



115 



Mr. Jon Deden, Denver, Colorado 

Mr. David Faucheux, Lafayette, Louisiana 

Ms. Joyce Green, Portland, Oregon 

Ms. Christine Hall, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Ms. Janet Harrison, Harvey, Louisiana 

Mr. Chip Johnson, Englewood, Colorado 

Ms. Susan Jones, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Ms. Jennifer Lehman, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Mr. Eric Lilliequist, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Ms. Jenny Lineback, Englewood, Colorado 

Mrs. Nannette Murrin, Tulsa, Oklahoma 

Ms. Quintina Myrick, Lafayette, Louisiana 

Mr. Norm Peters, Sacramento, California 

Mrs. Barbara Pierce, Oberlin, Ohio 

Mr. Michael Powell, Warren, Michigan 

Mrs. Cathy Schroeder, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Mrs. Hazel Staley, Charlotte, North Carolina 

Ms. Sandra Streeter, Omaha, Nebraska 

Mr. Adelmo Vigil, Alamogordo, New Mexico 

Braillewritina Program 

Reviewers and Field Testers 

Mr. Ardis Barnett, Indiana Family and Social Services 

Administration at Bosma Rehabilitation Center, Indianapolis, 
Indiana 

Ms. Edna L. Hoyt, Indiana Family and Social Services 
Administration, Muncie, Indiana 

Ms. Christine Pitzer, Indiana Family and Social Services 
Administration, Clarksville, Indiana 



116 

Ms. Judith K. Smith, Indiana Family and Social Services 
Administration, Evansville, Indiana 

Mr. Oren Stoll, Indiana Family and Social Services 
Administration, Evansville, Indiana 

Ms. Jill Thomas, Indiana Family and Social Services 
Administration, Lafayette, Indiana 

Educational Research and Development Committee 

Mr. Larry C. Brown, Technical Specialist/Teacher of the Visually 
Impaired, Oregon Textbook and Media Center, Portland, Oregon 

Dr. Yvonne Howze, Superintendent, Missouri School for the Blind, 
St. Louis, Missouri 

Mr. William R. Mann, Administrator, Nebraska School for the 
Visually Handicapped, Nebraska City, Nebraska 

Mr. Vernon Metcalf , Executive Director, Florida Association of 
Workers for the Blind, Inc., Miami, Florida 

Mrs. Martha R. Murrell, Director of Programs, Texas Education 
Agency, Austin, Texas 

Mr. Andrew S. Papineau, State Consultant, Wisconsin Department of 
Public Instruction, Madison, Wisconsin 

Mrs. Suzanne Swaf field, Education Associate, Programs for 

Exceptional Children, South Carolina Department of Education, 
Columbia, South Carolina 

Elementary Math 

Mr. Anthony Evansic, Math Teacher (Retired) , Western Pennsylvania 
School for Blind Children, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Dr. Phillip H. Hatlen, Superintendent, Texas School for the Blind 
and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas 

Dr. William E. Leibfritz, Associate Professor, Central Michigan 
University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 

Mr. Ted Lennox, Teacher of Visually Impaired Children, Carr 
School, Lincoln Park, Michigan 

Mr. Andrew S. Papineau, State Consultant, Wisconsin Department of 
Public Instruction, Madison, Wisconsin 



117 

Ms. Dale Redies, Itinerant Teacher for Visually Impaired 
Students, Tucson, Arizona 

Dr. LaRhea D. Sanford, Vision Teacher, Jones School, Nashville, 
Tennessee 

Ms. Merry Vahala, First Grade Teacher, Brook Elementary, 
Byesville, Ohio 

Guidelines for the Design of Tactile Graphics 

Mrs. Nancy Amick, Tactile Graphics Specialist, Recording for the 
Blind, Princeton, New Jersey 

Mrs. Jane Corcoran, Tactile Graphics Specialist, California 
Transcribers and Educators of the Visually Handicapped, 
Woodside, California 

Ms. Constance Craig, Tactile Department, Canadian National 
Institute for the Blind, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Dr. Judith Dixon, Head, Consumer Relations Section, National 
Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Washington, 
DC 

Mr. Warren D. Figueiredo, Coordinator, Resource Center, Louisiana 
School for the Visually Impaired, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Dr. Emerson Foulke, Professor Emeritus, University of Louisville, 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Mrs. Mary Jo Gilbert, Tactile Graphics Committee, National 
Braille Association, Schenectady, New York 

Dr. William Imperatore, Department of Geography and Planning, 
Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 

High Interest Low Vocabulary Age Appropriate Software 
Subcommittee 

Dr. Yvonne Howze, superintendent, Missouri School for the Blind, 
St Louis, Missouri 

Mrs. Eileen Kuhre, New Mexico School for the Visually 
Handicapped, Alamogordo, New Mexico 

Mrs. Rose Skolnick, Overbrook Education Center, Philadelphia 
Public Schools, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



118 

Mr. Robert Starkson, Mississippi State University, Research & 
Training: Blindness & Low Vision, (RRTC) , Oktibbeha, 
Mississippi 

Mr. Jay Stiteley, Texas School for the Blind and Visually 
Impaired Outreach Technology, Austin, Texas 

Infant Skills Project 

Teacher Evaluators 

Mrs. Meryl Berk, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Visually Impaired 
Infants Program, San Diego, California 

Mrs. Janice Brown, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Columbia Region 6, 
Portland, Oregon 

Mrs. Janet Chamberlain, Teacher for the Visually Impaired, 
Morganton, North Carolina 

Mrs. Kari Chiasson, Vision Itinerant Teacher, North Dakota School 
for the Blind, Grand Forks, North Dakota 

Mrs. Mary Dubell, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Columbia Region 6, 
Portland, Oregon 

Mrs. Diane Rodger, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Columbia Region 6, 
Portland, Oregon 

Mrs. Mary Zabelski, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Chicago Lighthouse 
for the Blind, Chicago, Illinois 

Light Tablet 

Mrs. Melinda Adkins, Teacher, Visually Impaired Preschool 
Services, Louisville, Kentucky 

Ms. Karen Bingham, Teacher, Utah School for the Blind, 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Ms. Linda Calderon, Teacher of the Visually Impaired, Louisville, 
Kentucky 

Mrs. Edith Ethridge, Teacher of the Visually Impaired, Kentucky 
School for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 

Ms. Karen Fredrickson, Teacher, Utah School for the Blind, Ogden, 
Utah 

Ms. Susan Green, Teacher, Utah School for the Blind, Ogden, Utah 



119 

Ms. Valerie Moser, Teacher, Dallas Services for Visually Impaired 
Children, Dallas, Texas 

Ms. Leslie Peay, Teacher, Utah School for the Blind, Ogden, Utah 

Mrs. Mary Ann Reynolds, Teacher, Visually Impaired Preschool 
Services, Louisville, Kentucky 

Mrs. Suze Staugus, Teacher, Visually Impaired Preschool Services, 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Ms. Pauline Wilson, Teacher, Utah School for the Blind, Ogden, 
Utah 



Microcomputer Applications 

Mr. Jim Allan, Coordinator of Education Technology, Texas School 
for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas 

Miss Linda Bishop, Instructor /Research Associate, Special 

Education Department, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tennessee 

Mr. Dean Blazie, President, Blazie Engineering, Forest Hill, 
Maryland 

Mr. Brian Buhrow, Programmer, National Federation of the Blind, 
Santa Cruz, California 

Dr. Tim Cranmer, Director, Research and Development, National 
Federation of the Blind, Frankfort, Kentucky 

Mr. Bill Davis, Media Services Director, New Mexico School for 
the Visually Handicapped, Alamogordo, New Mexico 

Mr. Bob Eakle, Inventor, E. F. Enterprises, Warrenville, South 
Carolina 

Dr. Emerson Foulke, Consultant, Braille Research Center, and 
Professor Emeritus, University of Louisville, Louisville, 
Kentucky 

Mr. Brian Hansen, Consumer, Springfield, Missouri 

Dr. Randall Harley, Professor of Special Education, Special 

Education Department, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tennessee 

Mr. Marty Mills, Instructor, Kentucky School for the Blind, 
Louisville, Kentucky 



120 

Mr. Tony Morales, Consumer, Mountain View, California 

Dr. Sandy Ruconich, Computer Specialist, Kentucky School for the 
Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 

Mr. Brian Sellers, Consumer, Lafayette, Louisiana 

Mr. Larry Skutchan, President, MicroTalk, Texarkana, Texas 

Mr. Jay Stiteley, Outreach Technology Teacher, Texas School for 
the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas 

Mr. Wayne Thompson, Engineer, Kentucky Department for the Blind, 
Frankfort , Kentucky 

Multihandicapped Adolescent Project 

Ms. Dana Blankenship, Middle School Teacher, Ft. Smith Public 
School, Hodgen, Oklahoma 

Ms. Jeanie Brasher, Teacher, Arkansas School for the Blind, 
Little Rock, Arkansas 

Mrs. Jackie Brennen, Supervisor of Life Skills Program, Overbrook 
School for the Blind, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania :-;-• 

Ms. Sue Carminati, Teacher, Virginia School for the Deaf and the 
Blind, Staunton, Virginia 

Ms. Gay Daigle, Inclusion Facilitator, New Hampshire Educational 
Services for the Sensory Impaired, Concord, New Hampshire 

Mr. Laird Gasson, Teacher, Multihandicapped and Sensory Impaired 
Adolescents, Arizona School for the Deaf and Blind, Tucson, 
Arizona 

Mrs. Diane Haynes, Early Childhood Teacher, Deaf -Blind 
Intervention Project, Lexington, Kentucky 

Ms. Suzan Lundy, Teacher, Multihandicapped, Colorado School for 
the Blind, Colorado Springs, Colorado 

Ms. Martha Majors, Assistant Supervisor, Deaf -Blind Program, 
Perkins School for the Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Ms. Gail Martin, New Hampshire Educational Services for the 
Sensory Impaired, Concord, New Hampshire 

Ms. JoMarie McMullen, Instructor, Multihandicapped, New York 
State School for the Blind, Batavia, New York 



121 

Ms. Mary Morse, Educational Consultant, New Hampshire Educational 
Services for the Sensory Impaired, Concord, New Hampshire 

Ms. Nell O'Neal, Teacher, Arkansas School for the Blind, Little 
Rock, Arkansas 

Ms. Judy Snider, Teacher, Arkansas School for the Blind, Little 
Rock, Arkansas 

Ms. Mary Stauffer, Teacher, Secondary Department, Western 
Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania 

Mrs. Mary Zatta, Teacher, Deaf -Blind Program, Perkins School for 
the Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Parent Early Childhood Education Series 

Dr. Bernadette Kappen, Associate Director, Overbrook School for 
the Blind, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Ms. Mary Anne Riggs, Hilton-Perkins National Projects, Waterton, 
Massachusetts 

Ms. Victoria Schladen, Supervisor, Foundation for Blind Children, 
Los Angeles, California 



PC Tvoer 

Mr. Kevin Fenski, Instructor, Sun Sounds Document Conversion and 
Training, Tucson, Arizona 

Mr. Richard Heywood, Typing Teacher, Nebraska School for the 
Blind, Nebraska City, Nebraska 

Ms. Susan Kemp, Vision Supervisor, Missouri School for the Blind, 
Outreach Services, St. Louis, Missouri 

Ms. Margaret Marston, Teacher of the Visually Impaired, 
Santaluces High School, Lantana, Florida 

Ms. Linda Ray, Itinerant Vision Teacher, Shawnee Mission Public 
Schools, Shawnee Mission, Kansas 

Mr. Dennis Shepard, Instructor, Sun Sounds Document Conversion 
and Training, Tucson, Arizona 

Mrs. Bonita Wilson, Typing Teacher, Kentucky School for the 
Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 



122 

Pragmatic Classroom Units for Young Multihandicapped Children 

Teacher Eva lua tors 

Ms. Jerri N. Barnett, Teacher, Tennessee School for the Blind, 
Nashville, Tennessee 

Ms. Kimberly Bass, Teacher, Infant Parent Program, Austin, Texas 

Ms. Toni Coplan, Teacher of the Visually Impaired, Fremont 
Unified School District, Sunol, California 

Ms. Leigh Ann Fuller, Preschool Teacher, Tennessee School for the 

Blind, Nashville, Tennessee 
■ 
Mr. Lee A. Gale, Teacher, Tennessee School for the Blind, 

Nashville, Tennessee 

Ms. Patrika L. Greigo, Teacher, New Mexico School for the 
Visually Handicapped, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Dr. Laurel J. Hudson, Vision Teacher, Perkins School for the 
Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Ms. Susan Newbold, Preschool Teacher, Arizona State School for 
Deaf and Blind, Phoenix, Arizona 

Ms. Nancy Patton, Itinerant Vision Teacher, Prince George's 
County Public Schools, Landover, Maryland 

Ms. Ann Phillips, Itinerant Vision Teacher, Prince George's 
County Public Schools, Landover, Maryland 

Ms. Sheela Susskind, Teacher of the Blind and Visually Impaired, 
Lighthouse Child Development Center, Elmhurst, New York 

Tactile Graphics Starter Kit 

Teacher Evaluators 

Kent Jones, Rehabilitation Instructor, Kentucky Department for 
the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 

Connie Latiff, Rehabilitation Instructor, Kentucky Department for 
the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky 

Barbara Merrick, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Jefferson County 
Public Schools, Louisville, Kentucky 

Mary Mitchell, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Jefferson County Public 
Schools, Louisville, Kentucky 



123 

Marcia Randall, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Jefferson County Public 
Schools, Louisville, Kentucky 

Lisa Say lor, Vision Itinerant Teacher, Jefferson County Public 
Schools, Louisville, Kentucky 

Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning Media 

Consulting Committee 

Sr. M. Margaret Fleming, Primary Teacher, St. Lucy Day School, 
Upper Darby, Pennsylvania 

Mrs. Ruth Holmes, Retired Low Vision Specialist, Illinois School 
for the Visually Impaired and State of Illinois, Jacksonville, 
Illinois 

Dr. Randall Jose, Optometrist, University of Houston, College of 
Optometry and Vision Rehabilitation Clinic, Lighthouse of 
Houston, Houston, Texas 

Dr. Evelyn Rex, Professor Emeritus, Department of Special 
Education, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 

Dr. Fredric Schroeder, Director, Rehabilitation Services 
Administration, Washington, DC 

Dr. Susan Spungin, Associate Executive Director for Program 

Services, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 

Dr. Robert J. Winn, President, The Hadley School for the Blind, 
Winnetka, Illinois 

Dr. Diane Wormsley, Director of National Initiative on Literacy, 
American Foundation for the Blind, Atlanta, Georgia 

Committee Contributors 

Sr. M. Margaret Fleming, Primary Teacher, St. Lucy Day School, 
Upper Darby, Pennsylvania 

Mrs. Ruth Holmes, Retired Low Vision Specialist, Illinois School 
for the Visually Impaired and State of Illinois, Jacksonville, 
Illinois 

Dr. Randall Jose, Optometrist, University of Houston, College of 
Optometry and Vision Rehabilitation Clinic, Lighthouse of 
Houston, Houston, Texas 



124 

Dr. Fredric Schroeder, Director, Rehabilitation Services 
Administration, Washington, DC 

Dr. Susan Spungin, Associate Executive Director for Program 

Services, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, New York 

Dr. Diane Wormsley, Director of National Initiative on Literacy, 
American Foundation for the Blind, Atlanta, Georgia 

Review Committee 

Mrs. Martha Simmons, Educational Diagnostician/Pupil Appraisal 
Coordinator, Louisiana School for the Visually Impaired 
Statewide Assessment Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Transition — ages 16-21 

Ms. LaVernya Carr, Director, Vocational Education/Transition 

Services, State of California Department of Education, Fremont, 
California 

Mr. Dennis Crepeaux, VR Counselor-Transition Specialist, Oregon 
Commission for the Blind, Salem, Oregon 

Ms. Pat MacDonell, Director of Transition, Oregon Commission for 
the Blind, Portland, Oregon 

Dr. Sharon Sacks, Associate Professor, San Jose State University, 
San Jose, California 

Dr. Karen Wolfe, Career Counseling and Consultation, Manchaca, 
Texas 



Videotape: Discovering the Magic of Reading 

Consultants 

Ms. Pauletta Feldman, Family Services Coordinator, Visually 
Impaired Preschool Services, Louisville, Kentucky 

Ms. Diane McComiskey, Director BEGIN Program, Center for the 
Visually Impaired, Atlanta, Georgia 



125 



APH's Department of Educational and Technical Research Staff 

June Morris, MA, Executive Vice-President 



Educational Research 

Bolin, Gene 
Caton, Hilda 

Curry , Loretta 
Duckworth, Bill, MS 
Elder, Venus, MA 
Gordon , Beth , MEd 
Gurevich, Veniamin, BS 
Hedges , John , BS 
Johnson, Deborah, BA 
Lohss, Bill, PhD 
Meredith , Rob 
Moore, Sheri, EdD 
Otto , Fred , BA 
Pester, Eleanor, MS 
Poppe , Tom 
Roderick, Carol, BA 
Willis, Deborah, MA 
Wright, Suzette, BA 



Administrative Assistant 
Research Scientist/Director, 
The Braille Research Center 
Secretary 

Librarian/Research Scientist 
Research Assistant 
Research Associate 
Programmer II 
Programmer II 
Research Assistant 
Director 
Programmer I 
Research Scientist 
Research Assistant 
Research Scientist 
Model and Pattern Maker 
Research Assistant 
Research Scientist 
Research Associate (40%) 



(50%) 



(50%) 
(50/75%) 



Technical Research Division 

Donhof f , Darlene 
Hayden , Frank 
Phelps, Bob 
Robinson, Jim 



Technical/Clerical Assistant 

Manufacturing Specialist 

Manager 

Manufacturing Specialist 



Contracted Personnel 

Foulke , Emerson , PhD 
Hamp, Eric, PhD 
Langley, M. Beth, MS 
Modaressi, Betty, BS 
Siems, John, ThM 



(at APH regularly) 



(at APH regularly) 



126 






127 

Publications 

Anderson, T. , Brown, G. , & Elder, V. W. , (1993, August). 

Computer devices and activities for preschool children who are 
totally blind. Micro Materials Update . Fall/Winter issue, 31- 
36. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. 

Elder, V .W. (Ed.) (1993/1994). Micro Materials Update (MMU) . 
Fall/Winter 1993, Spring/Summer 1994 . Louisville, KY: 
American Printing House for the Blind. 

Elder, V. W. (1993, August). Funding assistive technology — 
Where do I start? Micro Materials Update . Fall/Winter issue. 
Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, February). Funding, Part II: Navigating the 
river and writing grants. Micro Materials Update . Spring/ 
Summer issue. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the 
Blind. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, February). Myth: Blind people can't acquire 
higher paying professional jobs. Truth: Blind people can and 
care acquiring degrees and careers in higher paid professional 
positions. Micro Materials Update . Spring/Summer issue. 
Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. 

Hedges, J. (1994, Spring). Reading electronically: DOS access 
applications and some trends. Micro Materials Update , 7-11. 

Meredith, R. (1994) . Taking advantage of the latest version of 
Textalker-gs . Micro Materials Update . Spring/Summer 1994. 
17-20. 

Pester, E. (1994, Spring). Braillewriting: The often neglected 
skill of literacy. CTEVH Journal . 48-50. 

Pester, E. J. (1993, Summer). Braille instruction for the 
adventitiously blind: Scheduling, expectations, and reading 
interests. Re: view . 25 . 83-87. 

Pester, E. J., Petrosko, J. M. , & Poppe, K. J. (1994, Spring). 
Optimum size and spacing for introducing blind adults to the 
braille code. RE : view . 26 . 15-22. 

Willis, D. H. (1993). Dragons and robots spark students' 
interest in learning prefixes. Micro Materials Update . 
Fall/Winter, 12-13. Louisville, KY: American Printing House 
for the Blind. 



128 

Willis, D. H. (1994) . PC Typer provides a new option for 
enhancing typing skills. Micro Materials Update . 
Spring/ Summer, 1-6. Louisville, KY: American Printing House 
for the Blind. 



PROGRAM MATERIALS 

Caton, H. , Pester, E. , Bradley, E. J., Modaressi, B., Hamp, E. , & 
Otto, F. (1993) . Patterns: The primary braille spelling and 
English program, level B. Louisville, KY: American Printing 
House for the Blind. 

Hedges, J. (1994) . Big picture user manual booklet . 

Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. 

Otto, F. (1994) . Tactile graphics starter kit guidebook . 
Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. 

Otto, F., & Willis, D. (1994). PC Tvper user's manual: Single 
user version . Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the 
Blind. 



129 
Presentations and Workshops 

Caton, H. R. , & Gordon, M. E. (1994, April). TOOLS for 

selecting appropriate learning media . Workshop for staff from 
the American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Caton, H. R. , & Gordon, M. E. (1994, April). TOOLS for 
selecting appropriate learning media . New product 
demonstration at Nonprofit Organization Seminars, 35th annual 
conference, California Transcribers and Educators of the 
Visually Handicapped, Orange County, CA. 

Caton, H. R. , & Pester, E. J. (1944, February). Braille 

training materials — children . Workshop for staff from American 
Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Caton, H. R. , Pester, E. J., & Gordon, M. E. (1994, April). 

Controversial issues associated with braille in the 90 's . 35th 
annual conference, California Transcribers and Educators of the 
Visually Handicapped, Orange County, CA. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, January). Disability awareness and APH 
materials for primary level students . Crestwood Elementary 
School, Crestwood, KY. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, May). A parents guide to computer access 
for visually impaired preschoolers and APH early childhood 
products for blind and multihandicapped children . The ABCs of 
Early Intervention Conference, Donelson, TN. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, July). PC Typer: Your answer for speech 
accessible keyboard training, formal session presentation . The 
National Symposium on Educational Applications for Persons with 
Sensory Disabilities, Rochester, NY. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, July). PC Typer: Your answer for speech 
accessible keyboard training, poster session presentation . The 
National Symposium on Educational Applications for Persons with 
Sensory Disabilities, Rochester, NY. 

Elder, V. W. (1994, August). TEXT2000 teacher training and Big 
Picture demonstration . Two-day workshop for teachers, New 
Mexico School for the Visually Handicapped, Alamorgordo, NM. 

Gordon, M. E. (1993, November). APH Braille Research Center . 
Arkansas Chapter of the Association for Education and 
Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired and 
University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Getting in Touch with 
Literacy Conference, Little Rock, AR. 



130 

Gordon, M. E. , & Roderick, C. W. (1994, May). TOOLS for 

selecting appropriate learning media . Workshop for teachers 
from Visually Impaired Preschool Services, Louisville, KY. 

Gurevich, V. (1993, December). Presenting PC Tvper . In-service 
for Jefferson County, Kentucky Vision Teachers, American 
Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Hedges, J. (1994, June). Using the Big Picture bv APH . 

Gateways to Independence: Professional Development Training 
for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments. American 
Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Meredith, R. , & Willis, D. H. (1994, February). Important 
screen reading devices for Apple II computers: Textalker. 
Textalker-gs. and the Echo Speech Synthesizer . American 
Printing House for the Blind Personnel Training Session, 
Louisville, KY. 

Moore, S. B. (1994, February). Materials for teachers of young 
blind and multihandicapped visually handicapped 
infant/toddlers . Nebraska School for the Visually Handicapped, 
Lincoln, NE. 

Moore, S. B. (1994, July). Workshop on materials for the young 
and multihandicapped visually impaired student . Preview 
Statewide Training, Ft. Thomas, KY. 

Otto, F., & Poppe, T. (1994, April). Tactile graphics starter 
kit . Workshop for staff from American Printing House for the 
Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Otto, F. (1994, June). Using the NOMAD bv APH . Gateways to 
Independence: Professional Development Training for Teachers 
of Students with Visual Impairments. American Printing House 
for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, March). Classroom calendar kit and other 
APH calendars . Workshop for staff from American Printing House 
for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Pester, E. J. (1993, October). Materials and methods for 
teaching braille . Florida Chapter of the Association for 
Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually 
Impaired, Orlando, FL. 

Pester, E. J. (1993, October). Braille for teacher's aides . 
Western Kentucky Teacher's Aides, Princeton, KY. 

Pester, E. J., Caton, H. R. , & Gissoni, F. (1994, February). 
Braille training materials — adult . Workshop for staff from 
American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 



131 

Pester, E. J., & Gordon, M. E. (1993, November). The American 
Printing House for the Blind, the Braille Research Center, and 
current research projects . Teachers from the New Mexico School 
for the Blind, Alamogordo, NM. 

Pester, E. J., & Gordon, M. (1993, November). Research at APH 
and the Braille Research Center . Faculty of New Mexico School 
for the Blind, Alamogordo, NM. 

Pester, E. J. (1993, November). APH materials . Getting in 
Touch with Literacy Conference sponsored by the Arkansas 
Chapter of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of 
the Blind and Visually Impaired and the University of Arkansas 
at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, February). Teaching braille and Materials 
for early childhood and multihandicapped children who are 
visually impaired . Alabama Chapter of the Council for 
Exceptional Children, Division for the Visually Handicapped, 
Tuscaloosa, AL. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, July). New APH braille products and 

research on braille at APH and in the Braille Research Center . 
Braille Revival League at the Convention of the American 
Council of the Blind, Chicago, IL. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, July) . Teaching braille and Prebraille 
materials and skills . Outreach Seminar for Area Teachers and 
Parents and Personnel from Morehead State University at 
Morehead Extended Campus Center in West Liberty, KY. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, August). Learning about braille . Alabama 
Chapter of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of 
the Blind and Visually Impaired, Huntsville, AL. 

Pester, E. J. (1994, August). Current issues. Prebraille skills 
and materials. Teaching reading and writing with braille, and 
Teaching braille to adults . In-service for Teachers of 
Visually Impaired Students in Palm Beach County, West Palm 
Beach, FL. 

Willis, D. H. (1993, October). Enhancing your kevboarding 

skills with the talking PC Tvper . Closing the Gap Conference, 
Minneapolis, MN. 

Willis, D. H., Gurevich, V., & Meredith, R. (1994, February). 
Speech friendly typing programs for Apple II and IBM compatible 
computers: Talking Tvper and PC Typer . American Printing 
House for the Blind Personnel Training Session, Louisville, KY. 



132 

Willis, D. H. , & Meredith, R. (1994, May). An introductory set 
of materials for presenting talking Apple II computers . 
American Printing House for the Blind Personnel Training 
Session, Louisville, KY. 

Willis, D. H. , & Meredith, R. (1994, May). MECC programs 

adapted for complete speech accessibility . American Printing 
House for the Blind Personnel Training Session, Louisville, KY. 

Willis, D. H. (1994, July). Enhancing your kevboarding skills 
with PC Typer . Association for Education and Rehabilitation of 
the Blind and Visually Impaired, International Conference, 
Dallas, TX. 



133 
New Products 



Braille and Large Type Maps: U.S. and Its Regions 

The Globe 

LetterTALK+ 

The Listening Post 

Parents Early Childhood Education Series 

English Print and Braille Editions; Spanish Print Edition 
Patterns: The Primary Spelling and English Program— Level B 
PC Typer: Complete Set 
PC Typer: 3 1/2" Lab Pack 
PC Typer: 5 1/4" Lab Pack 
PC Typer: Demo Disks 
Peg Slate 
Prefixes 

Textalker Upgrade Disk Set 
Textalker-gs Upgrade Disk Set 
Tools for Selecting Appropriate Learning Media 

Large Type, Print, and Braille Editions